Abstract: The core of this thesis consists of eight articles mostly dedicated to combination of different chemical and physical laboratory methods for experimentation, analysis and interpretation. These include flow injection, fermentation process, chromatographic assay, spectroscopy and image analysis to provide new, simple and robust solutions to understanding of processes during microbial enhanced oil recovery. A review of microbial enhanced oil recovery was presented to better comprehend the problem.
Background: At present oil productions have been experiencing decline in many parts of the world due to oilfields maturity and example of such includes the major oilfields in the North Sea (Aleklett et al. 2010). Another major concern is the increase energy demand due to global population growth and mounting difficulty in discovering new oilfields. Therefore, there is a need to find alternative technologies to improve oil recovery from existing oilfields around the world. Keep reading…
Case Study about IT Infrastructure Purchasing in Finnish SME
This thesis concentrates on identifying if and how the use of decision making heuristics can lead to biased decision making in organizational purchasing context and in which ways a salesperson can identify such situation to present the best solution to the buyer’s problem. The main object of the study is to find which cognitive biases affect the different stages of the purchasing process of the case companies and to what extent.
A literature review of customer centric selling, organizational purchasing and behavioral decision making theory in purchasing context was used to create a theoretical framework for the empirical study. The empirical data of the comparative multi-case study was collected with semi-structural interviews. The interviews were carried for two separate groups of people: salespeople at Finnish IT resellers and purchasing decision makers at Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises. Keep reading…
Case Study about Cognitive Biases and Structural Failures in United States Foreign Policy
This thesis uses the controversy that developed in February 2007 between the United States Departments of State and Defense over which agency had responsibility for coordinating the manning of Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) and executing Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations in Iraq, to analyze decisions directing policy and plans for Phase IV operations. This research applies four theoretical perspectives to explain the decision-making process surrounding the transition to Phase IV operations.
The scope of this study ranges from the beginning of Phase IV planning in September 2001 until the transition to Phase IV in May 2003, when a formal plan to execute Phase IV operations would have been directed and implemented in Iraq. As has been widely reported since the end of major combat operations in May 2003, no plan was implemented for SSTR operations because “there was no real planning for post–war Iraq. Read more on Structural Failures
An Article by Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy Judge Institute of Management Studies, University of Cambridge, UK Since it was published, Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage of Nations has become a work of great influence – not only in the world of ideas but also in the agenda of governments.
The contribution is a significant one. But a subject so extensive could not possibly be covered in one book, and with a work so well noticed we are justified in subjecting its explanation to critical scrutiny. Our
approach does not stand as a substitute for what Porter says; the criticism is not that he is in error, but that his thesis is incomplete. Read more….
This paper reports on case study that investigated the development of mainly tacit and mainly explicit components of knowledge of area measurement of a student-pair. The research covered two terms or periods of the students’ learning of the subject: when they were aged 11 to 12 and when they were aged 12 to 13. The data analysis was based on Ernest’s model of mathematical knowledge, with reference to its mainly tacit and mainly explicit components, and Kitcher’s ideas about the development of mathematics practice. The results of the research reinforced our hypothesis that students’ mathematical knowledge displays a very similar structure to that of the mathematical knowledge of the mathematicians.
Introduction: The concept of tacit knowledge does not have a single meaning. As discussed in Frade’s (2004) work some researchers address what can be called Polanyi’s psychological version of tacit knowledge: knowledge that functions as subsidiary to the acquisition of other knowledge. Other researchers use the words tacit and explicit as opposites to refer to different, but complementary ontological dimensions of the same component of a certain practice. Whatever meaning we choose – psychological or ontological – the researchers quoted by Frade (ibid) share in some way Polanyi’s (1969) epistemological thesis that all knowledge is tacit or constructed from tacit knowledge: put it in another way, language alone is not enough to render knowledge explicit. Keep reading..
Case Study about Evolution in Natural and Artiﬁcial Systems
This thesis presents theoretical results on evolution, suggested here to be relevant both (1) to the study of natural systems, and (2), from a basic research view, to the design of evolutionary distributed artiﬁcial systems. From a perspective of building such artiﬁcial systems — seen as a set of active evolvable autonomous components (“individuals”) that interact with each other —, we need a deep understanding of how interactions among individuals can inﬂuence the evolution of the system and of how such interactions themselves evolve.
The intrinsic selective forces caused by such interactions can often subsist in spite of externally imposed forces — and even dominate them. In an artiﬁcial system, such intrinsic forces can defy control. Concretely, the questions explored here are on the evolution of complexity in mechanisms underlying the choice of interaction partners. The focused instance is mate choice, which is able to induce important selective forces with a considerable degree of independence from externally imposed selection. keep reading…
A Study on Sustainable Social-Ecological Systems: An Impossibility?
Abstract: Given rapid changes in large-scale human and biophysical processes—carbon emissions, population increase and migrations, over harvesting and pollution leading to loss of species—scientists are worried that many of the social-ecological systems existing today may collapse by the end of the 21st century. Is this an exaggerated worry? The thesis I will present is that the negative prognosis will indeed occur in many parts of the world if we do not worry a great deal about these processes and their consequences.
More important than simply worrying, however, is the development of a strong diagnostic method for analyzing the diversity of processes and the multiplicity of potential social and biophysical solutions that are needed to cope effectively with these varied processes. Past efforts to impose simple solutions to these complex problems have frequently led to worse outcomes than the problems addressed.. Read more on Sustainable Social-Ecological Systems..
Case Study for Building Capacity for Resilience in Social-ecological Systems
Abstract: This thesis analyzes social-ecological dynamics with the purpose to contribute to the understanding of adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems. It focuses on mechanisms for building social-ecological resilience in a world that is continuously changing. This involves the capacity of actors in such systems to cope with change and uncertainty without reducing the ability of complex ecosystems to generate goods and services essential for societal development.
Introduction: The Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development states that “Human activities are having increasing impact on the integrity of complex natural ecosystems that provide essential support for human well-being and economic activities Managing this natural resource base is essential for protecting the land, water and living resources on which human life and development depends…Click here to read more on Social ecological Systems
A Case Study about Discounted Cash Flow Approach to Firm Valuation
Abstract: This thesis presents a critical discussion concerning shortcomings of the discounted cash flow (DCF) model as it is used in firm valuation. It focuses on the estimation of the future performance of a firm. The implications of the shortcomings are discussed and methods to overcome them are argued for. The thesis aims at contribute to the ever present process of improving firm valuation. The information used to implement this thesis comes primarily from secondary data sources in the form of financial literature as well as figures from databases. The study was conducted in two parts, one theoretical and one empirical part. In the literature study it was found that one way to improve the DCF model would be to forecaste the future sales of a firm by utilizing a causal method approach (CMA).
Introduction: The activity in stock market exchanges has increased during the last decades. Consequently, so has the stock markets importance to the society. Nowadays, many institutions as well as individuals are heavily invested in the stock market. By investing poorly, large quantities of capital could be lost with quite devastating consequences for the institutions and individuals who are invested in the stock market, but also individuals indirectly dependent on the institutions could be subjected to indirect consequences. This calls for ever increasing sophistication of the tools available to estimate the value of firms on the stock markets.
Case Study about Deconstructing the Reforms of the Structural Funds
Abstract: This article re-assesses the multi-level governance debate and speciﬁcally the ‘renationalization thesis’, with respect to EU cohesion policy. It focuses on two of the principles of decision-making under the structural funds: concentration (decisions on where the money is spent) and programming (decisions on how it is spent). The analysis takes a longitudinal approach, examining each of the policy phases from 1988 until the recent debate on the 2007–13 period. The article concludes that the role of national governments.
Introduction: The governance of EU cohesion policy continues to be an important area for EU studies scholarship, particularly in relation to the enlargement of the EU and the launch of structural and cohesion funds programmes in the new Member States. With agreement having been reached on the budgetary and regulatory frameworks for spending in the 2007–13 period, there is an opportunity to reﬂect on what has been learnt about the respective roles of the Commission and Member States over four rounds of EU cohesion policy reform.