National Semiconductor supplies Nokia with analog components used in handheld wireless devices and network equipment. Compliance with the European Union’s forthcoming RoHS directive is a topical focus in cooperation between National and Nokia. Martin Schnepf, EFS and packaging expert from the Quality Assurance Department of National’s European headquarters, says National had already previously eliminated five of the six substances whose use is restricted by the directive, leaving only lead to work upon. The work started back in 2000 and by the end of 2004 lead-free versions were available for over 90 percent of products. Some high-power packages still use lead as a high melting temperature die attaches material. This use is exempted by the RoHS directive.
National has chosen the strategy of continuing to offer its customers leaded and lead-free versions of its products to enable the customers to transition smoothly from the standard production process to the lead-free environment. “We don’t want to put the customer under pressure and say, you have to accept lead-free components as of tomorrow as only those will then be available,” Schnepf says. The lead-free solders have an undesirable environmental side effect: they require a higher reflow temperature than lead-containing solders. Some products will have difficulty withstanding the thermal strain at the strictest moisture sensitivity level. Click here to read more…
Study about Human Resource Management Practices: Supply Chain Department of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Abstract: Human resource management practices are now considered as one of the key contributing factors to the success of an organization. The organizations are putting increased emphasis on the policies and practices of HRM to gain competitive advantage. Throughout the whole case study several HRM practices related to the supply chain department of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. are discussed. These HRM practices include human resource planning, recruitment and selection, induction, training, performance appraisal, employee development, compensation plan, etc.
Introduction: Human Resource Management (HRM) is a relatively new concept in Bangladesh. It was few years ago that this was considered as a part of the administrative functions of an organization. There was no individual identity for HRM. But as time passed people recognized the importance of HRM in organizations. They realized that HRM is not just to hire people. Apart form hiring, HRM has lots of functions which help an organization to gain competitive advantage (Islam, 2006). Effective HRM practices support business goals and objectives. That is why effective HRM practices are strategic. It can improve the performance of an organization by improving customer satisfaction, innovation and productivity. Keep reading…
Introduction: Located on approximately 3,500 acres, the Topaz Solar Farm will produce enough electricity to power 160,000 average California homes. The location was selected after an extensive review of potential sites in California, taking into consideration the available solar resource, proximity to existing Moro Bay to Midway transmission lines, current land uses, and environmental sensitivities. Economic benefits from the project will include an estimated $417 million, including property and sales tax revenues, for San Luis Obispo County, wages from direct and indirect employment, induced spending, and supply chain revenues.
VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY OF MANGOES IN KENYA
INTRODUCTION: This document reviews fruit production and yield trends, mango production, marketing and processing of smallholders and traders along the mango value chain in Kenya. It also examines future development prospects.
Despite the existence of considerable potential and a steady growth in yields over the last decade, the development of the Kenyan mango supply chain appears to be hindered by a number of structural problems. This has a negative effect on the country, both in terms of foregone potential income and employment opportunities and in terms of reduced availability of locally produced high quality fruits and natural juices.
Case Study about International Development Enterprises India
Summary: About 98 million farmers in India are smallholders. Many grow only a single crop each year, watered by the monsoon. If the land is irrigated two or even three crops can be grown, providing food and income and reducing the need to migrate to cities for jobs. IDEI was set up to provide cheap treadle (foot-operated) pumps, so that poor farmers can afford to irrigate their land. IDEI won an Ashden Award in 2006, for setting up the supply chain to provide these pumps in the rural areas of Eastern India, and its work has now gone much further
The NGO IDEI was set up to provide cheap treadle (foot-operated) pumps, so that poor farmers can afford to irrigate their land. IDEI won an Ashden Award in 2006, for its achievement in setting up the supply chain to provide treadle pumps in rural areas of Eastern India. IDEI has now expanded to new areas, provided more pumps, and diversified into other efficient irrigation technologies.
A Case Study about Lean Planning in the Semi-Process Industry
Abstract: The lean approach is an idealizing improvement approach that has an enormous impact in the field of Operations Management. The approach is basically very process oriented and there was less attention first for planning and control, this being the profession of dealing with all kind of non-ideal manufacturing and supply-chain restrictions. During the last years, however, planning and control have been integrated in the lean approach, leading to the concept of lean planning. Cyclic schedules form an important element of lean planning, certainly in the (semi-) process industry.
Introduction: During the last years, planning and control has been integrated rather well in the lean approach. Lean planning has an important impact in practice already. This paper describes a lean planning case study in a semi-process production plant. The case study is interesting in itself and illustrates well how lean planning can be developed in practice. It is also used, however, to show how context dependent the mechanisms are that are coupled with lean planning. That makes the results of lean interventions difficult to predict. The case study stresses in this way the complexity of developing the lean approach into theory.
A Case Study about Understanding Inter-Organizational Decision Coordination
Abstract: Purpose: This article develops a theoretical framework to investigate the interaction and coordination of decision-making processes in a supply chain with multiple and inter-dependent suppliers and customers. Approach: Three longitudinal case studies on the decision coordination processes between a European toy supplier and three retailers. Findings: The case studies found different mental models, decision-making behaviours, coordination behaviours and ordering behaviours even though the toy supplier and the three retailers observed quite the same material flow behaviours. The study found explanations for these diverse behaviours by analyzing the mental models and decision-making behaviours of each involved party.
Introduction: A supply chain is fully coordinated when all decisions for accomplishing global system objectives are aligned (Sahin and Robinson, 2002). Particularly, ordering decisions of supply chain members have to be coordinated so that the rate of order fulfilment is synchronized with the rate of consumption at the lowest possible cost (Dyer and Singh, 1998; Simatupang et al., 2002). Despite the importance of interorganizational decision coordination, much of the logistics and supply chain literature (e.g. Thomas and Griffin, 1996; Metters, 1997; Lewis and Talalayevsky, 2004) seldom considers the influence of inter-organizational decision coordination on material (physical) flows (Malone and Crowston, 1994).
A Study bout Call Center Outsourcing: Coordinating Staﬃng Level and Service Quality
Abstract: In this paper, we study the contracting issues in an outsourcing supply chain consisting of a user company and a call center that does outsourcing work for the user company. We model the call center as a G/G/s queue with customer abandonment. Each call has a revenue potential, and we model the call center’s service quality by the percentage of calls resolved. The call center makes two strategic decisions: how many agents to have and how much eﬀort to exert to achieve service quality.
Introduction: An increasing number of companies are moving their call center operations of shore. Accordingto market researcher Datamonitor, the total value for the U.S. outsourcing market will be worth almost $24 billion by 2008, compared with the current $19 billion. According to Datamonitor, “By 2008, 1 in 15 agent positions (workstations) will be outsourced to a foreign market, from 1 in 24 currently. By year-end 2003, oﬀshore outsourcers, climbing to 201,000 by 2008, will staﬀ 121,000 agent positions.”1 Despite lower labor cost, companies in practice have experienced mixed results from outsourcing their call centers. In fact, some companies’ outsourcing strategies have backﬁred, causing them to re-evaluate or abort their outsourcing mission.
The planning and controlling operations is largely dependent on managing the substantial information generated, not just of relevance to the operations function but seamless integration of all business functions. It is towards this aim that the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are developed to provide the information backbone needed to support business decisions and execute the operations. So ERP is described as software system that integrates application programs in manufacturing, logistics, sales and marketing, finance, human resources and the other functions in a firm (Vollmann et al. 2005). The noted experts Tom Wallace and Bob Stahl prefer to express ERP as enterprise-wide set of management tools that help balance demand and supply, thus encompassing the roots of ERP and the decision support capability. Read More….
Resource efficiency improvements should always be addressed within the context of the overall environmental impact of the product. A simplified environmental assessment was carried out on 20 construction products as part of the BeAware project, using life cycle assessment (LCA) data. See the Overview of Methodology document for further details on how this was carried out.
The supply chain for each product was also investigated to ascertain where resource efficiency improvements could be implemented. This involved examining how a product is distributed, installed, maintained and eventually disposed of. Identified areas of improvement included reduction of waste, efficient raw material use, material substitution, recycled content, packaging materials and options, and diversion of waste from andfill.