Introduction: The environment in which social enterprises and voluntary organisations operate is slowly changing. There is a shift in the relationship between the public sector and the social economy from a grant aid culture towards a contract culture. Investors and funders are beginning to fund outcomes rather than just outputs. Good practice is slowly emerging as part of this culture 2 change.
One effect of this change is increased pressure on social enterprises and voluntary organisations to prove the added value they produce if they wish to secure contracts or acquire investment.This section looks at the forces driving change in the business environment. It ‘makes the case’ that there is an increased focus on the social added value that social enterprises and voluntary organisations produce. This, in turn, leads to a necessity to measure and prove those impacts. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Intellectual Property Rights in Light of the Objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity
Introduction: The relationship between the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and intellectual property rights (IPRs) is the subject of continuing debate. Equally controversial is the effect of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual property (TRIPS Agreement) – one of the agreements binding on Members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) – on the achievement of the CBD’s objectives and on sustainable development generally. Progress in resolving these complex issues has been slow.
In this discussion paper, CIEL and WWF offer an overview of progress at the WTO and the CBD and recommend some ways forward. We explore the relationships between these legal frameworks, and outline key steps that CBD parties and WTO Members – who comprise many of the same countries – should take at the international and national levels. In particular, to support these key steps, we call for action by the Conference of the Parties (COP) and subsidiary bodies of the CBD, and by the WTO’s Counci l for TRIPS and General Council. Keep reading…
A Study about Early Childbearing and Low Cognitive Ability
Background: Given the relationship between cognitive ability and adolescent risk behaviors, it would not be surprising to discover that early sexual activity is associated with below-average cognitive ability. Low intelligence might lead to a limited ability to understand the relationship between sexual activity and pregnancy and childbirth, or the function and proper use of contraceptive methods.
Having low cognitive ability would make it difﬁcult to link one’s current actions to future results. This is a cognitive process that requires being able to think abstractly, an ability that normally develops during midadolescence. Teenagers with cognitive limitation may experience signiﬁcant delays in developing this ability, or they may never develop it. Keep reading..
Case Study about Communication Channels in a Graduate Program
The researchers conducted a study on the communication channels between students and an independent academic graduate program in the United States. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify available communication channels between students and the program; (2) investigate the students’ attitudes toward current communication channels; (3) examine the relationship between students’ and the program’s expectations of effective communication channels; (4) discover any gaps in expectations between students and the program; (5) determine the potential student need for alternative communication channels; and (6) provide suggestions for potential improvement or new communicative means. Using questionnaires and interviews, the researchers collected data from students and faculty in the program. The findings may inform members of the graduate program in designing and implementing communication channels utilized in the program. Also, suggestions for the improvement of current communication channels and characteristics of effective communication channels are provided
Broad use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education has changed teaching and learning substantially. Researchers and educators have investigated how to integrate technologies with instruction to help students learn more effectively. For example, technologies can provide means by which learners solve problems and can serve as cognitive tools to scaffold learners’ deeper understanding (Blumefeld et al., 1991; Fosnot, 1996; Jonassen, 1999; Land & Hannafin, 2000). Also, the emergence of the Internet allows students to search and access relevant information to help them study subject matter and reflect critically on their learning (Yumuk, 2002). Furthermore, technologies provide opportunities for dialogues and discussions within a learning community (Fosnot, 1996). In addition, ICT can facilitate the sharing of learning resources, space and can promote collaborative and autonomous learning. Teachers’ roles have changed as well. They have to meet different students’ varying needs in these new learning environments. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Changing Behaviours: Opening a new conversation with the citizen
Executive Summary: Local government is facing twin challenges – to renew public services and their relationship with citizens, and to manage grant reductions of 28 percent. It is clear that the state and the citizen will have to engage in radically new conversations in the years to come.But there remains little evidence of how these two challenges can be tackled simultaneously. Behaviour change approaches – popularized by Thaler and Sunstein’s recent book Nudge – offer a crucial means to pursue these goals. As this research paper will show, the argument is not about whether or not the state should try and change the way citizens behave.
Behaviour change approaches have become a key part of the debate. Academics and innovators have established the philosophical, political and theoretical underpinnings of behavioural economics, social conditions and network theory. Councils are uniquely-placed to lead on behaviour change approaches. New markets in healthcare and education should see councils adopt a radically different type of leadership in their area, where they understand and shape citizen preferences. As NLGN has argued recently, this is likely to see councils move to evolve new models of community leadership. Keep reading…
Case Study about Modernizing Democracy: Computer Aided Citizen Participation and Decision-making in Planning
The impact of modern media on the political process has been repeatedly discussed as each new wave of technology is mainstreamed. While the impact on public opinion by successive technological improvements in mass communication is undisputed, at least in its broad outlines, changes resulting from interactive, computer-based, person-to-person technologies are more elusive. What is meant by modernizing democracy through the application of information technology is explored in the context of the public policy and planning decision-making process and its ability to both stimulate and support citizen participation and decision making is the subject of the talk.
As Donald Appleyard has noted “technical planning issues are not only value based, but identity based…physical planning decisions can, and frequently do, threaten the identity and status of certain groups while enlarging the powers of others…” Planning, including urban design and zoning, largely decides a community’s physical form, and therefore is inherently local and generates an extraordinary amount of local attention because it deals with issues that affect everyone. As a result they have the ability to reinforce the relationship between people and places and to identify common ground between competing interests in an increasingly diverse society. Keep reading…
Case Study about Leadership Development in Undergraduate Public Relations Students
This qualitative case study considered the relationship between a Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA) chapter at a public state university in Northern California and its local Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) affiliate chapter. Its purpose was to explore student perceptions of the contributions of this relationship to what they learned about leadership while serving as club officers. Research was conducted during the fall semester 2010.
The study explored efforts designed to help PRSSA chapter officers fulfill individual responsibilities. Local and national PRSA representatives provided advice and counsel through diverse channels, the intent of which was to help PRSSA chapter officers meet the challenges of their respective roles. These industry professionals in turn observed leadership development in the students included in this study. Keep reading…
Case Study about Tanzania and University of Dar es Salaam
Case Study reports in this series contain the detailed data and analysis for each country and university in the sample. Together, they form the empirical basisfor the analysis and discussion of findings contained in the CHET book, Universities and Economic Development in Africa, which was published in August 2011. While every effort has been made to check the data and edit the text in the time available, it should be noted that these case study reports have not been subjected to the publishing rigours of formally published publications. They are therefore made available ‘asis’.
This report reviews the international literature on the relationship between higher education and economic development. The review focuses on previous research and theory on the link between higher education and economic growth, the knowledge economy, innovation, and local and regional development. The review would be of interest to academics and students who work in the field of higher education studies. Keep reading…
Case Study on Test Coverage and Post-Veriﬁcation Defects: A Multiple
Abstract: Test coverage is a promising measure of test effectiveness and development organizations are interested in costeffective levels of coverage that provide sufﬁcient fault removal with contained testing effort. We have conducted a multiple-case study on two dissimilar industrial software projects to investigate if test coverage reﬂects test effectiveness and to ﬁnd the relationship between test effort and the level of test coverage. We ﬁnd that in both projects the increase in test coverage is associated with decrease in ﬁeld reported problems when adjusted for the number of prerelease changes. A qualitative investigation revealed several potential explanations, including code complexity, developer experience, the type of functionality, and remote development teams. All these factors were related to the level of coverage and quality, with coverage having an effect even after these adjustments. We also ﬁnd that the test effort increases exponentially with test coverage, but the reduction in ﬁeld problem s increases linearly with test coverage. This suggests that for most projects the optimal levels of coverage are likely to be well short of 100%.
Introduction: Among software quality improvement activities testing is arguably the most important. It is, therefore, of particular interest to evaluate and understand how good is a particular set of tests with respect to its ability to detect the most disruptive (post-release) defects. Clearly, skilled testers are more likely to produce more effective tests, but it is preferable to assess the test effectiveness using quantitative and easy-to-obtain measures of test performance that are applicable in software development practice. Because testing is a pre-release activity, the measures of test performance can not be based on the most relevant post-release observations of quality. Apart from a simple measure of test count or testing effort that does not distinguish individual tests (or hours spent testing) according to their ability to detect defects, a widely used measure of test effectiveness is test coverage (subsequently we will simply use the term “Coverage”). There is a variety of coverage metrics from s impler class, function, and statement coverage and to more sophisticated branch and even path coverage. Keep Reading..
Case Studies about Flexible and Inflexible Computers
The relationship between mental computation and number sense is complex: mental computation can facilitate number sense when students are encouraged to be flexible, but flexibility and number sense is neither sufficient nor necessary for accuracy in mental computation. It is possible for familiarity with a strategy to compensate for a lack of number sense and inefficient processes. This study reports on six case studies exploring Year 3 students’ procedures for and understanding of mental addition and subtraction, and understanding of number sense and other cognitive, metacognitive, and affective factors associated with mental computation.
The case studies indicate that the mental computation process is composed of four stages in which cognitive, metacognitive and affective factors operate differently for flexible and inflexible computers. The authors propose a model in which the differences between computer types are seen in terms of the application of different knowledges in number facts, numeration, effect of operation on number, and beliefs and metacognition on strategy choice and strategy implementation. Keep reading…