Study about Incentive for Biodiversity Conservation in Mombasa City: Income Generating Activities
Mombasa is Kenya’s second largest city, located on the South Eastern coast of the country, along the Indian Ocean and has approximately 939,370 people (KNBS, 2009 Census). The population is growing rapidly, thus, exerting a lot of pressure on the existing natural environment. As a result, the city has a history of disasters related to climate extremes including floods, which cause serious damage nearly every year and, often, loss of life. The majority of the population does not have formal education and is therefore not in formal employment.
This leads to dependence on natural resources as a source of livelihood, which obviously impacts negatively on the city‟s biodiversity leading to loss of natural capital.This study aims at analyzing the possibility of reversing this trend, through alternative income generation activities, as exemplified elsewhere. The case study approach will be used in this analysis. Can alternative income generation activities be an incentive for nature and biodiversity conservation in Mombasa city? This is the question that this analysis seeks to answer. Keep reading
A Study report about Children and Young People with Special Educational Needs
Introduction: In 2009, the RHS commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to implement a research study looking at the impact of gardening in schools. The study surveyed 1300 teachers and conducted an in-depth study of 10 schools ranging from a large primary school in urban London to a small village school in Yorkshire. The findings of this study, published in June 2010, showed that school gardens provide a dynamic platform from which to build better learning outcomes for young people.
These outcomes fall into four key areas:Cognitive: This is the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, the ability to think independently, to question and to apply concepts and principles in different contexts. Other outcomes include enhanced communication skills and use of vocabulary across the curriculum. Keep reading..
A Study report about Children with Special Educational Needs
Introduction:~ All children, including children with special educational needs, have a right to an education which is appropriate to their needs. The aims of education for pupils with special educational needs are the same as apply to all children. Education should be about enabling all children, in line with their abilities, to live full and independent lives so that they can contribute to their communities, cooperate with other people and continue to learn throughout their lives. Education is about supporting children to develop in all aspects of their lives – spiritual, moral, cognitive, emotional, imaginative, aesthetic, social and physical.This booklet is written for parents to answer key questions they may have about special education, both generally and as it relates to their child. The word ‘parent’ in this document should also be taken to include guardians of children.
Children with special educational needs are children first and have much in common with other children of the same age. There are many aspects to a child’s development that make up the whole child, including – personality, the ability to communicate (verbal and non-verbal), resilience and strength, the ability to appreciate and enjoy life and the desire to learn. Each child has individual strengths, personality and experiences so particular disabilities will impact differently on individual children. A child’s special educational need should not define the whole child. Keep reading…
Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) is a boon for the people who have no shelter and who generally belong to below the poverty line (BPL) segment of population. IAY (1985-86) comes as a relief for them by providing them with financial assistance for construction of houses. At present it is the flagship programme of the government for rural housing. On 1 st April, 1996 IAY was introduced as an independent scheme. Before this it was combined with RLEGP and NREP. It is a centrally initiated scheme with cost sharing of 75:25 between the Centre and the state.
This scheme is not only for people under BPL but also for households headed by SC/ST, freed bonded labourers, unmarried women and widows. Under the plan, the allocation of the houses is done in the name of the female member of the benefited family or in the joint names of husband and wife. The study of IAY in our area of study-Pothia block of Kishanganj district was done with the aim of developing a comprehensive understanding of the IAY and examining its working. Keep reading…
The purpose of a case study is to study intensely one set (or unit) of something—programs, cities, counties, work sites—as a distinct whole. What does this mean? For a program designed to encourage bars to observe the smoke free bar law, an evaluation must document the program’s impact on the bars and on the behavior of people in the bars. In a non-case study design, one might decide to observe a series of randomly selected bars to see whether bartenders take some action to enforce the smoke free bar law when customers begin to smoke.
This style of evaluation entails collecting data on bartender behavior from a random sample of bars large enough to be representative of the entire population of bars from which you sampled. In contrast, a case study design focuses on a hand-picked set of bars (sometimes even just one bar). Before the program begins, the evaluator spends time in the bar(s), observing behavior and talking with people. As the program progresses, the evaluator continues to make observations and to int erview the owners, managers, employees, and customers. She might observe the bars at various times of the day to monitor compliance with other smokefree rules, such as the absence of ashtrays. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Vulnerability and Exploitation of Child Domestic Workers
Introduction: Child domestic workers (i.e. children in domestic labor) are people under the age of 18 who work in households of people other than their closest family doing domestic chores, caring for children, running errands and sometimes helping the employer run a small businesses from home. This includes children who are paid for their work, as well as those who are not paid or who receive ‘in-kind’ benefits, such as food and shelter. Child domestic workers comprise the largest population of migrant working children, and they often work in conditions that can be considered a worst form of child labor. They are also mostly girls. Children as young as seven years old are routinely pressed into domestic service, and despite hopes to the contrary, most are deprived of the opportunity to attend school. Child domestic workers are isolated from their families and from opportunities to make friends – and are under the total control of employers who do not necessarily have their best interest as a primary concern.
Child domestic workers are prone to verbal, physical and sexual violence, and the impact of this abuse can leave permanent scars. In the Philippines, the Visayan Forum has documented cases of physical abuse that sometimes result in serious physical injury or even death. In one case a child died six months after her employer forced her to drink acid for unclogging drains; another was burned with an iron by her employer; yet another child was forced to kneel on a wooden stool for hours with fire extinguishers in both hands. Read more…
Abstract: It is common for people to be more critical of others‘ ethical choices than of their own. This chapter explores those remarkable circumstances in which people see no evil in others‘ unethical behavior. Specifically, we explore 1) the motivated tendency to overlook the unethical behavior of others when we recognize the unethical behavior would harm us, 2) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior unless it is clear, immediate, and direct, 3) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior when ethicality erodes slowly over time, and 4) the tendency to assess unethical behaviors only after the unethical behavior has resulted in a bad outcome, but not during the decision process.
Since 1985, when David Messick and his colleagues showed that people think they are fairer than others, a great deal of research has documented the broad and powerful implications of their work. Among the findings: People are routinely more willing to be critical of others‘ ethics than of their own. People are more suspicious of others‘ motives for committing good acts (Epley & Caruso, 2004; Epley & Dunning, 2000). People assume that others are more self-interested than they are and more strongly motivated by money (Miller & Ratner, 1998; Ratner & Miller, 2001). People believe they are more honest and trustworthy than others (Baumhart, 1968; Messick & Bazerman, 1996) and that they try harder to do good (Alicke, 1985; Baumeister & Newman, 1994). But people are not always eager to shine a critical moral light on others. Indeed, there are systematic and predictable circumstances under which people look theother way when others engage in unethical conduct. This chapter concerns those circumstances. Keep reading…
Case Studies about Sustainable Development in Practice
Introduction: Development is not just about growth. Likewise, sustainability is not just about protecting the environment. Both development and sustainability are primarily about people living in peace with each other and in equilibrium with the planet. Their rights, opportunities, choices, dignity and values are (or should be) at the centre of everything. Sustainable development is about meeting the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Inter-generational equity—avoiding the unjustified transfer of development risks from present to future generations, without sacrificing reductions in poverty and inequality today at the altar of future environmental concerns—is implicit in this approach to development.Current patterns of consumption and production risk breaching planetary boundaries. If the natural environment undergoes significant degradation, so too does the potential to improve people’s lives—both in this and subsequent generations. This is especially true for the world’s poorest—most of whom rely directly upon nature for their livelihoods, and whose prospects are therefore most directly affected by the threats to ecosystems. Keep reading…
A Study about Nonrational Escalation of Commitment in Negotiation
A common trap is that of nonrationally escalating a commitment to a previous course of action. Giving case studies in America of such events, Max Bazerman and Margaret three critical psychological motives for managers (and Neale identify others) to escalate initial commitments into a competitive spiral that can ultimately be very damaging. Such escalation can even occur without competition.
People often make choices and behave in ways that are not consistent with their own self-interests. This is particularly true when we consider much of the behavior of negotiators. One common mistake that negotiators and others make is that they nonrationally escalate their commitment to a previous course of action. keep reading…
Study about Trends in Public Participation: Local Government Perspectives
Introduction: Enhanced public participation lies at the heart of the Labour government’s modernization agenda for British local government. As the white paper Modern Local Government: In Touch with the People states, ‘the Government wishes to see consultation and participation embedded into the culture of all councils and undertaken across a wide range of each council’s responsibilities’ (DETR 1998, para. 4.6).
Such bold statements suggest that the modernization programme is introducing fundamental change into local democratic practices: change which is addressed as much towards altering cultures and attitudes within local government as it is towards creating new opportunities for democratic participation. Yet the belief that local government should involve the public or ‘get closer to the community’ is hardly new. The history of British local government is littered with experiments in public participation and consultation (Gyford 1991; Burns et al. 1994; Stoker 1997). Keep reading…