In my preceding chapters I have tried, by going into the minutiae of the science of piloting, to carry the reader step by step to a comprehension of what the science consists of; and at the same time I have tried to show him that it is a very curious and wonderful science, too, and very worthy of his attention. If I have seemed to love my subject, it is no surprising thing, for I loved the profession far better than any I have followed since, and I took a measureless pride in it.
The reason is plain: a pilot, in those days, was the only unfettered and entirely independent human being that lived in the earth. Kings are but the hampered servants of parliament and people; parliaments sit in chains forged by their constituency; the editor of a newspaper cannot be independent, but must work with one hand tied behind him by party and patrons, and be content to utter only half or two-thirds of his mind; no clergyman is a free man and may speak the whole truth, regardless of his parish’s opinions; writers of all kinds are manacled servants of the public. Click here to read more…
A Study about Constituency Development Funds: Scoping
Executive Summary: Constituency Development Fund (CDF) schemes are decentralisation initiatives which send funds from the central government to each constituency for expenditure on development projects intended to address particular local needs. A key feature of CDF schemes is that Members of Parliament (MP) typically exert a tremendous degree of control over how funds are spent. This scoping paper provides an overview of CDFs: when, where and how they have emerged worldwide; identifies the key features of CDFs hich impact on their performance; outlines the arguments and evidence available for and against CDFs, and; investigates the opportunities and possible future research from an advocacy perspective.
Despite the variety of forms and approaches in different countries, the following essential elements are identified which help to distinguish CDFs from other decentralization initiatives or community-based development programmes. First, funds are raised by national government and disbursed at local level. Second, funds are allocated per constituency and MPs have some degree of control over the spending. Lastly, funds are intended for development projects which reflect localized needs and preferences. Keep reading…
The Polish transformation commenced with the Round Table negotiations between the Communist government and oppositional Solidarity movement in the early 1989. As a result of these negotiations, semi-free elections to Parliament were held on June 4, 1989. Although the electoral law guaranteed the Communist Party (Polish United Workers’ Party) and its allies the majority and thus the prerogative to form the government, the magnitude of the opposition victory and the subsequent defections of two minor partners from the government camp opened the way for the formation of the first non-communist government in the East Central Europe since the 1940s.
The government, led by Tadeusz Mazowiecki, a long-time Solidarity activist, was sworn in on August 24, 1989. It introduced deep systemic reforms in virtually all areas of public life. Keep reading…
Case Study about Performance Audit Key Performance Indicators
Executive Summary: Governments, the Parliament and the people are increasingly demanding that public sector organisations undertake their functions in the most economical, efficient and effective manner. This requires agencies to provide meaningful and useful information on their performance and the achievement of desired outcomes. This Report is concerned with the issue of holding individual agencies accountable for their performance, and doing so in a reliable and consistent way across the New South Wales (NSW) public sector. Performance indicators, as the term itself suggests, are not an exact measure of achievement but rather provide an indication of agency performance. To be useful to members of parliament, Ministers and others, performance indicators must exhibit certain characteristics: appropriateness, relevance, accuracy, timeliness, completeness and comprehensiveness.
Up until the late 1970s, the notion of accountability was mainly concerned with a breakdown of inputs, with a distinct emphasis being placed on any underexpenditure of appropriations and reasons for any variations in the proposed budget from current expenditure results. Then central coordinating agencies – firstly in South Australia, then in Victoria and the Commonwealth – started to question this general approach.1 Accounting for results (or Program Budgeting as it was generally described at the time) – with the emphasis on inputs augmented by examining outputs and, where possible, outcomes – was introduced by those three Governments. In 1985-86 the NSW Government also recognised the importance of KPIs and introduced program budgeting. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Parliament Library Building Domes
The Parliament Library building in New Delhi, India, was completed in 2002. Given the significance of the building, the developers (Central Public Works Department) were keen to use the best materials possible, with the latest technologies. It was also imperative for the uilding to blend in with the surrounding environment. The result is a four-storey building, two floors of which are above ground. The main architectural feature is the twelve individual domes which make up the roof, each comprising different dimensions, designs and materials. The domes are both the highest and most recognisable elements of the building. Two of the domes are made from glass and stainless steel.
Material Selection: The library is adjacent to the Indian Parliament building, which was built in the 1920’s as a key element of the colonial plan for the city of New Delhi. As shown in Figure 1, the building was designed to create a unique and architecturally-pleasing landscape. It was imperative that the design for the new library was sensitive to the surroundings and political context as well as displaying contemporary and up-to-date features. Furthermore, the brief stipulated that the new structures should not dominate the main building. For these reasons, stainless steel provided an appropriate solution for many of the material requirements. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Poor Planning and Communication
The Fukushima Daiichi power plant’s operator and the Japanese government were ill-prepared to respond and communicated poorly in the aftermath of the March 2011 nuclear disaster, says a July 5 report from the official investigation commission.
One issue was that response workers at the plant relied on severe-accident instruction manuals that were missing sections.The independent investigation commission, which Japan’s parliament created in late 2011, consists of a chairman and nine other members. Its investigation included more than 900 hours of hearings, plus interviews with 1,167 people. Among its members are medical doctors, professors, lawyers and a former ambassador. Keep reading…
Under the Constitution, India is a Union of States and all legislative powers are divided between the Centre and the States. Briefly, the scheme of distribution of legislative powers is that the Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to matters enumerated in List I of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, called the Union List. The State Legislatures have exclusive power to make laws with respect to matters enumerated in List II, i.e. the State List. However, in certain contingencies, e.g. when the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution under article 249 empowering the Parliament to make law on a State subject or the Legislatures of two or more States ask Parliament to do so by way of their resolutions or a State is under President’s Rule and all powers of the State Legislature are vested in the Parliament, it can make laws on a subject enumerated in the State List. List III, called the Concurrent List, comprises subjects on which both Parliament and the Legislatures of the States have concurrent power. However, in the event of a repugnancy between the Central and the State law so made, the Central law would prevail. Since residuary powers vest in Parliament, it can also make laws in areas not specifically enumerated in any of the three Lists included in the Seventh Schedule.
A Case Study about Consumer Protection Act Related to Banking Sector
Abstract: According to the constitution of India justice is an important part in which a consumer justice and protection is one subpart. There are number of legislations were passed by the Indian Parliament but they fail to protect the interest of small consumers. In the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 was passed, to protect the interest of the consumers. In this article, I try to deal with the negligence and deficiency in service of banks in relation to shares and investments and what are rights and remedies as a consumer.
Introduction: In the constitution of India, social and economic justice is an important part in which a consumer justice and protection is also a part. There are number of legislations were passed by the Indian Parliament such as Drugs (Control) Act, 1950; Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954; Essential Commodities Act, 1955; Essential Services Maintenance Act, 1968; Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958; MRTP Act, 1969, etc. But all these act are failed to protect the interest of small consumers.
Indian Railway Budget 2013-14 will be presented by the Railway Minister Pawan Kumar Bansal in the Parliament on February 26, 2013. Reports stated that Bansal’s maiden Rail Budget may announce the introduction of about 100 trains, including AC double deckers, new passenger services and extension of services to cater to the demands of various states in the Rail Budget 2013-14.
The announcement will be made for manufacturing of 4200 new coaches including 600 LHB coaches in the Rail Budget, report said. Railways had increased fares across the board by 21% on 22 January, aiming to mop up an additional revenue of Rs 66bn…
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Budget Made & the People Behind Through the Budget, the government of the day seeks Parliament’s permission to collect funds by way of taxes, duties, borrowings and so on. These funds are used, with the approval of Parliament, to meet expenses.
Who makes The Budget: Budget is made through a consultative process involving ministry of fi nance, Planning Commission and the spending ministries States present their annual demand to the Planning Commission and others to ministries concerned Finance ministry and Planning Commission issue guidelines to spending based on which ministries present their demand.
How is The Budget Made: In September, the Budget Division issues a circular to all Union ministries, states, UTs, autonomous bodies and departments the defence forces for preparing budget estimates for the next year After ministries and departments send in their demands, extensive consultations are held between Union ministries and the Department of Expenditure of the Finance Ministry.. Keep Reading