Study about Environmental Information Management in Africa: Uganda
Introduction:~ Environmental management in Uganda was first accorded the attention it deserves with the creation of the Ministry of Environment Protection in 1986. Following this, Uganda realized the need to put in place systems and structures to ensure the management of environmental information. The underlying assumption was that good information would lead to better decisions and management practices which would eventually be positively reflected by an enhanced environment and improved quality of life of the people.
The management of environment information involves a number of processes and outputs. These include the collection, organisation, analysis and communication of data, statistics and other qualitative material. The production of environmental information entails the collection and analysis of raw data and their interpretation into forms that can be used for decision making (NEMA 1996). Some of the outputs include assessments and studies and the production of state of the environment reports, environmental outlook reports, statistical compendia, data books, environmental atlases and policy statements by both public and private sector organizations. Keep reading…
A Case Study about For the Analysis of Assumptions In Assessments
Abstract: When analysts do quantitative scientific assessments of complex policy problems, they have to make many assumptions in the chain of calculations that lead to the end results. These assumptions inevitably involve – to some degree – subjective judgements by the analysts. This report offers a method for analysing the ‘subjective component’, or ‘value-ladenness’, of such assumptions. ‘Value-ladenness’ is not reserved for politically controversial assumptions, since there are also epistemic, non-political components in the subjectivity of choices.
The proposed method enables analysts and stakeholders to conduct a well-structured discussion on potentially value-laden assumptions and their influence on the results of the assessment. An analysis of the nature and extent of the potential value-ladenness conveys the ‘weak links’ in the assessment and may lead to the decision to adjust the assessment. The method furthermore offers assistance in communicating crucial assumptions. keep reading…
A Study about Early Childbearing and Low Cognitive Ability
Background: Given the relationship between cognitive ability and adolescent risk behaviors, it would not be surprising to discover that early sexual activity is associated with below-average cognitive ability. Low intelligence might lead to a limited ability to understand the relationship between sexual activity and pregnancy and childbirth, or the function and proper use of contraceptive methods.
Having low cognitive ability would make it difﬁcult to link one’s current actions to future results. This is a cognitive process that requires being able to think abstractly, an ability that normally develops during midadolescence. Teenagers with cognitive limitation may experience signiﬁcant delays in developing this ability, or they may never develop it. Keep reading..
Case Study about Restricted Reality of Teacher Leadership: A South African Survey
Abstract: This paper describes the three key findings from this research. Firstly, teachers supported the notion of shared leadership and believed that teachers were able and equipped to lead. Secondly, teachers were involved in leadership, mainly within their classrooms and to a lesser degree beyond their classrooms as they collaborated with other teachers in curricular and extra-curricular activities. There was substantially less teacher leadership in relation to school-wide as well as community issues. Finally, the SMTs were considered the main barrier to teacher leadership because of their lack of trust in teachers and because they did not involve teachers in decisionmaking. These findings were similar to those of the original research and the local case study research to date on teacher leadership. Overall, the paper highlights the restricted nature of teacher leadership in the majority of our KZN schools but argues, never-the-less, for the central role of teachers as leaders working collaboratively from ithin schools to bring about improvement.
This paper presents the overall findings of a research project carried out by a group of post-graduate Honours students in the Faculty of Education at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in 2008. The project replicated a quantitative study using a survey approach to examine perceptions about teacher leadership (see Khumalo, 2008). This paper is based on the findings of the survey done which involved 1055 level one teachers in KwaZuluNatal into their perceptions and experiences of teacher leadership. The choice to do survey research was intentional as we wanted to reach a large number of teachers to get their views. In doing this, we aimed also to compare the findings of our research with the original survey as well as with the more qualitative case study research already completed on the topic. We were interested to know whether our quantitative research methods would compliment the findings of the completed qualitative studies or would offer a different perspective altogether. Keep reading..
Case Study about IT Infrastructure Purchasing in Finnish SME
This thesis concentrates on identifying if and how the use of decision making heuristics can lead to biased decision making in organizational purchasing context and in which ways a salesperson can identify such situation to present the best solution to the buyer’s problem. The main object of the study is to find which cognitive biases affect the different stages of the purchasing process of the case companies and to what extent.
A literature review of customer centric selling, organizational purchasing and behavioral decision making theory in purchasing context was used to create a theoretical framework for the empirical study. The empirical data of the comparative multi-case study was collected with semi-structural interviews. The interviews were carried for two separate groups of people: salespeople at Finnish IT resellers and purchasing decision makers at Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises. Keep reading…
Study about Comparing Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return
Introduction: To this point neither of the two discounted cash flow procedures for evaluating an investment is obviously incorrect. In many situations, the internal rate of return (IRR) procedure will lead to the same decision as the net present value (NPV) procedure, but there are also times when the IRR may lead to different decisions from those obtained by using the net present value procedure. When the two methods lead to different decisions, the net present value method tends to give better decisions. It is sometimes possible to use the IRR method in such a way that it gives the same results as the NPV method. For this to occur, it is necessary that the rate of discount at which it is appropriate to discount future cash proceeds be the same for all future years.
Accept or Reject Decisions: Frequently, the investment decision to be made is whether to accept or reject a project where the cash flows of the project do not affect the cash flows of other projects. We speak of this type of investment as being an independent investment. With the IRR procedure, the recommendation with conventional cash flows is to accept an independent investment if its IRR is greater than some minimum acceptable rate of discount. If the cash flow corresponding to the investment consists of one or more periods of cash outlays followed only by periods of cash proceeds, this method will give the same accept or reject decisions as the NPV method, using the same discount rate.
The manufacturer and the purchaser, reliability is one of the most important characteristics defining the quality of a product or system. High reliability is achieved through design efforts, choice of materials and other inputs, production, quality assurance efforts, proper maintenance, and many related decisions and activities, all of which add to the costs of production, purchase, and product ownership.
On the other hand, lack of reliability can also lead to significant costs. Loss of revenue due to grounding of a wide-body commercial aircraft may be substantial. In the case of breakdown of a large production facility, revenue loss can amount to millions of dollars per day. Failure of a spacecraft can result in the loss of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars.
Case Study about National Commission on Fraudulent Financial Reporting
Introduction: This report presents the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the National Commission on Fraudulent Financial Reporting (the Commission), From October 1985 to September 1987, the Commission studied the financial reporting system in the United States. Our mission was to identify causal factors that can lead to fraudulent financial reporting and steps to reduce its incidence. Fraudulent financial reporting is indeed a serious problem. Infrequent though its occurrence arguably may be, its consequences can be widespread and significant. Although fraud in any form can be difficult to deter, fraudulent financial reporting can be reduced, perhaps substantially, if each party for whom we made recommendations takes the steps we recommend.
Fraudulent Financial Reporting: For purposes of this study and report, the Commission defined fraudulent financial reporting as intentional or reckless conduct, whether act or omission, that results in materially misleading financial statements. Fraudulent financial reporting can involve many factors and take many forms. It may entail gross and deliberate distortion of corporate records, such as inventory count tags, or falsified transactions, such as fictitious sales or orders. It may entail the misapplication of ac- counting principles. Company employees at any level may be involved, from top to middle management to lower-level personnel. If the conduct is intentional, or so reckless that it is the legal equivalent of intentional conduct, and results in fraudulent financial statements, it comes within the Commission’s operating definition of the term fraudulent financial reporting.
Project Initiation: The team quickly came to the conclusion that each area of the Foyer was operating their recruitment process slightly differently. They therefore decided to produce a value stream map to cover the complete recruitment process for each strand of the business. Commencing with Foyer Health, the team worked across the business through interactive road shows to document systems whilst creating a feedback loop. The road shows provided invaluable information and allowed all employees to make suggestions for improvements.
Working through the analysis: Following the initial high level process map a series of detailed process maps and flow-charts were created. This enabled the team to start putting structure to the enormous amount of information that was being collated. Costings, lead times and the impact of non-value added were included. Detailed Ishikawa diagrams were prepared by the team to communicate across the organisation and to plan actions for improvements. They began to make decisions on high impact and low impact activities depending on the lead times, costs and amount of inefficiency.
Case Study about Developing New Product Concepts Via the Lead User Method: Low Tech Field
Abstract: The Lead User market research method is built around the idea that the richest understanding of new product and service needs is held by just a few “Lead Users.” They can be identified and drawn into a process of joint development of new product or service concepts with manufacturer personnel. In this article we report on a successful application of a Lead User market research method carried out by Cornelius Herstatt at Hilti AG, a major European manufacturer of products and materials used in construction.
Introduction: Each of the two Lead User characteristics is important from the point of view of obtaining rich market researcher information on new product and service opportunities. The first is important because, as studies of problem-solving have shown, users who have real-world experience with a need can provide the most accurate data regarding it. And when needs are evolving rapidly, as is the case in many high technology product categories, only users at the front of the trend will have experience with “tomorrow’s needs today.”