A Study about the First Expert System for Scientific Hypothesis Formation
Abstract:~ The DENDRAL Project was one of the first large-scale programs to embody the strategy of using detailed, task-specific knowledge about a problem domain as a source of heuristics, and to seek generality through automating the acquisition of such knowledge. This paper summarizes the major conceptual contributions and accomplishments of that project. It is an attempt to distill from this research the lessons that are of importance to artificial intelligence research and to provide a record of the final status of two decades of work.
Introduction:~ Within computer science the DENDRAL Project is noteworthy in several ways. It was the first major application of heuristic programming to experimen- tal analysis in an empirical science, a practical problem of some importance. It was one of the first large-scale programs to embody the strategy of using detailed, task-specific knowledge about the problem domain as a source of heuristics, and to seek generality through automating the acquisition of such knowledge. It has achieved a high level of performance, because it used a substantial amount of knowledge of chemistry. Keep reading…
Introduction: Educators have a responsibility, to both students and their parents, to provide a safe learning environment in which the risk of personal injury is low. For technology educators, however, this responsibility is compounded by the fact that students generally have little or no experience working in hazardous environments where the knowledge of risks and the need for safe work practises are crucial.This handbook was designed to provide you, the instructor, with assistance in your efforts to teach specific skills and best practises within the context of a broader shop safety program. In support of the safety-related learning outcomes prescribed by the Technology Education Integrated Resource Package, this handbook outlines best practises and minimum standards required in shop classes throughout BC in an effort to keep students safe and to provide them with an awareness of the importance of safety in the workplace.
Educating students about shop safety can be a challenge—how do you provide them with enough information to ensure their safety without overwhelming them or losing their interest? And what do you do about those students who are inclined to disregard safety instructions with a wave of bravado and misplaced confidence? Unfortunately, we can’t solve the problems in your shop area, but we can offer you some suggestions on how to build safety into your current and future programs. Keep reading…
Case Study about Global Understanding of Upward Influence Strategies
Abstract: We begin with a review of the upward influence literature for the past twenty years. In particular, we examine the extent to which upward influence behavior is congruent with the value dimensions proposed in the established values research and the extent to which the U.S. based measures are applicable in the Asian context. A model of cross-cultural influence behavior is developed to synthesize the present state of our knowledge in cross-cultural upward influence, and to provide a framework for identifying issues requiring further investigation. We conclude by proposing a set of cross-cultural research questions identified in the model.
It is well recognized in studies of managerial behavior that a manager’s effectiveness highly depends upon his/her success in dealing with interpersonal relationships. An effective manager should be able to “manage” not only his/her subordinates and co-workers but also superiors. In other words, to effectively accomplish work through interpersonal networks, managers must succeed in influencing the behavior of others, including their superiors. Keep reading…
A Study about Cognitive Biases Affect the Acceptance of Tradeoff
Summary: tradeoff studies involving human subjective calibration and data updating are often distrusted by decision makers. A review of objectivity and subjectivity in decision making conﬁrms that prospect theory is a good model for actual human decision making. Relationships between tradeoff studies and the elements of experiments in judgment and decision making show that tradeoff studies are susceptible to human cognitive biases. Examples of relevant biases are given. Knowledge of these biases should help give decision makers more conﬁdence in tradeoff studies
Introduction: tradeoff studies provide a rational method for improving choice among alternatives. tradeoff studies involve a quantitative consideration of all aspects of the decision, considering all evaluation criteria of the alternatives simultaneously. Without tradeoff studies, humans usually consider alternatives serially, and often ﬁxate on one or a few less-than-optimal criteria. Read more onTradeoff.
A Case Study about Management of Individuals with Parkinson Disease: Rationale
In this article, we present a systematic approach to physical therapy management of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. This approach is based on a model that relates knowledge of the underlying pathology of the disease to impairments and disability. We discuss use of the model to evaluate, interpret, and treat impairments and disabilities of the patient with Parkinson’s disease. We emphasize the relative influence of impairments that arise directly from then euro anatomical pathology and those that arise indirectly through subsequent musculoskeletal alterations. We illustrate the use of the model in setting goals and in developing a treatment program. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the application of this approach to specific patient care.
These case studies suggest the efficacy of physical therapy initiated early in the disease process. The first case study illustrates improvements of balance, gait, and functional movement made by an individual who was not yet receiving medication for Parkinson’s disease. The second case study illustrates improvements of balance, gait, and functional movement made by an individual who was already receiving medication for the disease. These case studies illustrate the dramatic improvements that can be achieved in the patient with Parkinsons disease. Keep reading…
A Case Study about People Participation in Community Development: Planned Village Settlement in Malaysia
Abstract: In this study, the people’s participation in community development activities is viewed as a process by which individuals are involved in initiating, deciding, planning, implementing and managing the group and its activities. It is also a process of social development in which people, as subjects in their own environment, seek out ways to meet their collective needs and expectations and to overcome their common problems. In pursuing this collective action, the self-help and mutual-help spirit that underlies the Asian traditional community spirit of working, helped to hasten the achievement of these shared interests through group-based-activities.
Introduction: Participation is a dynamic process. Hence, it is difficult to predict or even to quantify using a standard ‘measurement’. Participation is rather molded by, and originates from, individuals’ experiences in participating. As such, the qualitative-ethnographic approach employed in this study was able to assist in understanding the process of people’s participation in community development activities. This approach has also helped to deepen the knowledge about participation itself. This was not achieved merely by putting ‘participation’ into a measurable variable that can be operationalized into four quantifiable aspects, i.e. decision making, implementing, benefit sharing and evaluation. Keep reading…
Case Study about Norwegian Hospital Reform: Centralized or Decentralized
Abstract: In recent years, decentralization of financial and political power has been perceived as a useful means to improve outcomes of the health care sector. Such reforms are often a result of fashion, rather than being based on knowledge of “what works”. If decentralization is the favored strategy in health care, studies of countries that go against the current trend will be of interest and importance as they provide information about the potential drawbacks of decentralization. In Norway, specialized health care has recently been recentralized.
Introduction: The design of a health care system involves decisions about models of financing, producing and distributing services. Examination of OECD countries reveals large differences in the way health care systems are organized and financed. It is tempting to draw the conclusion that there is no clear “best” system. In many countries, decentralization now seems to be the chosen management strategy (Saltman et al, 2005), although the rationale for choosing a decentralized model, as well as its practical implications, may vary. Reforms are often the result of fashion, rather than being based on knowledge of “what works”. keep reading..
In this study I discuss G. W. Leibniz’s (1646-1716) views on rational decision-making from the standpoint of both God and man. The Divine decision takes place within creation, as God freely chooses the best from an infinite number of possible worlds. While God’s choice is based on absolutely certain knowledge, human decisions on practical matters are mostly based on uncertain knowledge. However, in many respects they could be regarded as analogous in more complicated situations.
In addition to giving an overview of the divine decision-making and discussing critically the criteria God -favours in his choice, I provide an account of Leibniz’s views on human deliberation, which includes some new ideas. One of these concerns is the importance of estimating probabilities – in making decisions one estimates both the goodness of the act itself and its consequences as far as the desired good is concerned. Another idea is related to the plurality of goods in complicated decisions and the competition this may provoke. Thirdly, heuristic models are used to sketch situations under deliberation in order to help in making the decision. Click here to read more…
A Study about Validity of Company Valuation Using Discounted Cash Flow Methods
Abstract: This paper closely examines theoretical and practical aspects of the widely used discounted cash flows (DCF) valuation method. It assesses its potentials as well as several weaknesses. A special emphasize is being put on the valuation of companies using the DCF method. The paper finds that the discounted cash flow method is a powerful tool to analyze even complex situations. However, the DCF method is subject to massive assumption bias and even slight changes in the underlying assumptions of an analysis can drastically alter the valuation results. A practical example of these implications is given using a scenario analysis.
Introduction: The goal of this paper is to introduce the reader to the method of company valuation using discounted cash flows, often referred to as “DCF”. The DCF method is a standard procedure in modern finance and it is therefore very important to thoroughly understand how the method works and what its limitations and their implications are. Although this paper is on a basic level, it requires some knowledge of accounting and corporate finance, as well as a good understanding of general economic coherencies, since not every topic can be explained in detail due to size limitations.
marketing has become a more and more important tool in politics in general. In order to campaign successfully – and become the President-elect – in the U.S. Presidential Election, marketing is indispensable. This lead to enormous amounts of money spent on marketing. The aim of this research is to contribute to existing knowledge in the field of political marketing through the analysis of how marketing is done throughout a political campaign. The 2008 U.S. Presidential Primary Elections, together with a few key candidates have served as the empirical example of this investigation. Read more…