A Case Study about Margin Requirements for Non-Centrally-Cleared Derivatives
Executive Summary: This consultative document presents the initial policy proposals emerging from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) joint Working Group on Margining Requirements (WGMR). These proposals would establish minimum standards for margin requirements for non-centrallycleared derivatives.1 These proposals were developed in consultation with, and with the ctive participation of, the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS) and the Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS).
Background: The economic and financial crisis that began in 2007 demonstrated significant weaknesses in the resiliency of banks and other market participants to financial and economic shocks. In the context of over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives in particular, the recent financial crisis demonstrated that further transparency and regulation of OTC derivatives and participants in the OTC derivatives markets was necessary to limit excessive and opaque risk-taking through OTC derivatives and to reduce the systemic risk posed by OTC derivatives transactions, markets, and practices. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Understanding Quality in Context: Child Care Centers
Executive Summary:~ Children’s earliest experiences can have substantial and long‐lasting effects on their development. Early care and education can prepare children for school, but while some preschool and child care programs do an excellent job, others are inadequate and some may even harm healthy development. Why is there so much variation, and how can public initiatives help poor‐quality programs improve?
While research has told us a lot about key dimensions of quality—for example the role of stable, well‐trained staff—and has delineated major barriers to achieving it, we know little about what influences the variation in quality of services, even among programs that face similar challenges. Why can one program provide high‐quality services while another, facing similar constraints, cannot?And how can a low‐achieving program start on a path toward high performance? Answering these questions could help us make even more effective use of the billions of dollars the United States spends every yearto help pare nts access early care and education services. Keep reading..
A Case Study about Evaluation of Post Matric Scholarships (PMS)
Executive Summary:~ Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are the most disadvantaged groups of the Indian society. Due to socio-historical and geographical isolation socio-economic development has bypassed them so Central and State Governments have adopted many affirmative actions and strategies for their protection, welfare and development. The Constitutional safeguards in the form of reservations in legislature, Parliament, admissions in educational institutions, and jobs in government and Public enterprises establishing National Commission for SCs, STs and Safai Karmacharis, Protection of Civil Rights (PCR) Act, 1955 & Prevention of Atrocities (POA) Act, 1989 are some of the important measures.
The socioeconomic up-liftment had been undertaken through various economic and social empowerment programmes of provision of livelihoods, amenities, infrastructure facilities and educational development programmes through Finance Corporations, skill development, training and educational development programmes. The Central and State governments are adopting special strategies of Scheduled Caste Sub Plan and Tribal Sub Plan as a comprehensive strategies for the overall development of SCs and STs in the country with outlays specifying for their targeted development to minimise the socio-economic gaps between these disadvantaged groups and the rest of the population for an egalitarian society. Keep reading…
A Study about Child Development Indicators in Rural Panchayats of Tamilnadu
Executive Summary: Child Development: A Priority Area? Children grow, develop & learn throughout their lives from birth & infancy to adulthood. The child’s development can be measured through social, physical & cognitive developmental milestones. If children fail to develop properly, they may be unable to reach their full potential. However, health care professionals & parents can work together as partners to help children grow healthy & strong. The intent of early child interventions is to lay a foundation in conjunction with the family to support infants as they grow & mature into healthy individuals. A healthy status means achieving the best possible outcome for a child in physical, mental & social functioning.
Though children grow, develop and learn throughout life the first five years of life are critical, and so an increasing number of early childhood interventions are being developed and implemented both by the government & the private sectors. Apart from these social, religious, economic and political institutions, media & cultural values can also influence how children live their lives. Study of child development is important because it provides practical guidance for all those who care for children. International agreement on standard child development indicators has been reached only for health and nutrition. The commonly used child development indicators can be broadly divided into health indicators, nutrition indicators and cognitive development indicators. Keep reading…
A Study report about Socio- Economic Disability and Unemployment Problems among Muslims of Other Backward Classes
Executive Summary: Since independence, India has achieved significant growth and development. It has also been successful in reducing poverty and improving crucial human development indicators such as levels of literacy, education and health. There are indications however, that not all religious communities and social groups has shared equally the benefits of growth process. Among them, the OBC Muslims, constituting 6 % of the population, are seriously lagging behind in term of the most of the human development indicators. While the perception of deprivation is widespread among OBC Muslims, there have been no systematic efforts since independence to analyze their condition in the country.
Sachar Commission has done a laudable work in making in-depth study and highlighting the plight of Muslims. However, there is marked difference between Gen. Muslims and OBC Muslims. If analysis is made in regard to socio-economic, employment and educational level of Gen. Muslims and OBC Muslims separately, it will reveal that Gen. Muslims in general are not behind Non-Muslim OBCs, SCs and STs, but large sections of OBC Muslims certainly are. It is the latter who need special care, protection and promotion in economic and educational fields. Keep reading…
A Case Study about National Consultation On Inclusive Education
Executive Summary: “Integration is a necessary pre – condition for inclusion but is not a solution. What we want is Inclusion, which means young people with special educational needs being placed in mainstream provision, where there is a commitment to removing all barriers to ensure the full participation of each child as a valued, unique individual”. This is one of the key messages which came out from the National Consultation on Inclusive Education organized jointly by Directorate General of Special Education (DGSE), Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, Sightsavers International (SSI) and International Council for Education of People with Visual Impairment (ICEVI). The consultation took place on March 27-28, 2006 in Islamabad, Pakistan.
After the plenary, participants were split into four thematic groups, in an exercise aimed at identifying the current gaps and developing the national guidelines of assigned themes. The four strategic themes were Service Delivery and Infrastructure, Human Resource Development, Advocacy, and Accessibility. The exercise continued the following day when the groups took the process further and on the basis of the needs identified, developed national guidelines on inclusive education. During these sessions, the participants presented a wide array of ideas and concepts that were considered appropriate by them under different strategic themes. These extensive group exercises were followed by group presentations and on the basis of these presentations the final recommendations for future were drawn. Keep reading…
Executive Summary:~ Ethiopia suffers from an acute shortage of health workers at every level, and rural areas, in which 85% of the population live, have been particularly chronically under-served. In working out the best approach to tackle health workforce issues, the Ministry of Health calculated that 60-80% of the country’s annual mortality rate is due to preventable communicable diseases such as malaria, pneumonia and TB. HIV and AIDS are also growing concerns.
They therefore chose to begin by focussing on community level provision, initiating the Health Extension Programme in 2004. This is outlined in the current Health Sector Development Plan (2005-10), which focuses on both human resource development and the construction and rehabilitation of facilities. Keep reading..
A Study about Key Issues for Rising National Oil Companies
Executive Summary: It is a widely reported view that the time of the oil industry being controlled by the major International Oil Companies (IOCs) is giving way to what many people are calling the “era of the NOC”. But interestingly, the NOC executives interviewed for this report rejected this idea. It implies for them a polarity and an opposition between NOCs and IOCs that is no longer reality in a world where more NOCs are moving outside their national boundaries and partially privatizing their assets. It was clear from the interviews that a number of NOCs are seen as being highly proficient, well-managed companies.
Other NOCs are growing in capability and benefiting from the current environment of high prices and limited open acreage to demand more from potential partners and investors. Over the next decade, this transition is likely to continue to take shape, giving rise to new opportunities and challenges for NOCs, IOCs and service companies. New players are likely to emerge and strategic relationships will be likely to adapt to suit their evolving needs. Keep reading…
Study about Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula
Executive Summary: The most frequently found approach to DRR integration is that of infusion, i.e., disaster-related themes and topics that are woven into speci!c school subjects. DRR is, for the most part, integrated into a narrow band of subjects, typically the physical and natural sciences, although there are examples of its appearance across a wider range of subjects.
There are a limited number of examples of DRR appearing as the primary focus or key strand within a special new subject area. Moreover, there is little evidence of cross-curricular linkages being forged nor of an interdisciplinary approach being adopted. If horizontal integration is not prominent, neither is vertical integration of DRR learning at the primary and secondary grade levels. Keep reading…
Executive Summary: In September 2000, the Policy Development Unit of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)commissioned the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) to undertake an independent study on humanitarian coordination. The aim was to sharpen thinking on UN humanitarian coordination in the light of processes underway in the UN. These include debates on how the UN chooses coordination arrangements, the report of the UN Panel on Peace Operations – the Brahimi report5 – and OCHA’s own Change Management Process.
The study’s methodology was a review of studies of coordination over the last decade, more than 250 interviews with UN, NGOs, the Red Cross Movement, governments, donors and the military, and three case studies of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Somalia and Kosovo, each based on a week-long visit by the study team. Although the study’s focus was the coordination of, and by, the humanitarian agencies of the UN system, as the range of interviewees suggests, the study drew on the experiences and perspective of all those implicated in UN coordination. Keep reading…