A Study about Canadian Environmental Decision Support Systems
Introduction:~ This Case Study will discuss two different decision support systems that we have developed for Canadian environmental applications. We will first discuss how these systems utilize data and models to solve domain-specific problems and focus on effectiveness rather than efficiency in the decision making processes.
In particular we will discuss how they are useful in better understanding the complex interaction between land and water and how they also provide a method to make informed resource management decisions and that they require the integration of scientific data, information, models and knowledge across multimedia (air, land and water), multi-disciplines and diverse landscapes. Keep reading…
Study about Implementation of a Standard Management Outcomes System: Thailand
Abstract: Thai government established standards of Thai public management and public service outcomes that will lead to an achievement of total system outcomes in the public sector. It’s achievements and factors affecting the implementation are questions addressed in this study. Results of the study found that the implementation of PSOís data and participation systems of the CDD caused an improvement in the standard of working systems. Both efficiency and quality of work had been increased. Registered to implement PSO work units have had dramatic reductions in concerned work unitsí complaints, significant reductions in using government budget and increased response rates to peopleís demands and expectations. Characteristic of a learning organization, perception in PSO standards, executive support, participative management, performance improvement experience, regulation used in work are significantly affecting officialsí satisfaction in the work improvements caused by PSO implementation.
Introduction: PSO (Public Sector Standard Management System and Outcomes) policy is a significant innovative public policy that aims to establish standards of Thai public management and public service outcomes that lead to an achievement of total system outcomes in the public sector. Success in PSO policy implementation is regarded as successful implementation in the entire public sector. All government organizations are required to develop standard outcomes. This study aims to find out the outcomes the CDD (Community Development Department) has achieved from the intervention of PSO implementation. Major factors that significantly contribute to the implementation and their effect are identified, and measures those support the implementation are suggested. Data system and Participation system of PSO standards are scope of study. keep reading…
A Study about Simulation of Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery
Abstract:~ Surfactant flooding is an important process for enhanced oil recovery. A substantial amount of remaining oil resides in reservoirs especially in carbonate oil reservoirs that have low primary and water-flood oil recovery. Most of the surfactant flooding studies to date has been performed in water-wet sandstone reservoirs.
As a result, the effects of heterogeneity and wettability of carbonates on surfactant flooding efficiency are fairly unknown. The purpose of this simulation study was to determine the effects of wettability and wettability alteration on Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate surfactant flooding in carbonate reservoirs. This study used the multi-phase, multi-component, surfactant flooding simulator called UTCHEM. The base case results showed that additional 27.8% of oil recovered after water-flooding process. Sensitivity analyses of key parameters such as chemical slug size and concentrations, salinity, reservoir heterogeneity and surfactant adsorption were performed to optimize a surfactant desi for a mixed-wet dolomite reservoir. Keep reading..
A Study about Improving the Efficiency of the Indian Employment Assurance Scheme
The Indian Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was launched by the federal government in October 1993 in poor and drought prone districts (blocks) throughout India to assure employment during lean agricultural seasons, and to create economic and community infrastructure to promote sustained employment and development. The scheme had a budget of US$518 million in 1997-98 and was implemented through the development administration of the state governments under the supervision of the Central Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment (MRAE).
The Programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO) was asked by the government’s Planning Commission to assess the performance of EAS and to suggest measures for improved performance. In view of reported unsatisfactory performance of EAS and other poverty alleviation schemes, reforms of these schemes were already on the agenda of the government. However, an independent evaluation was needed to judge performance on the basis of hard data from the grassroots, and to determine how exactly the restructuring could be undertaken. Keep reading..
Abstract:~ Access, brokerage, and efficiency are all acknowledged as important sources of political influence, but are seen as conceptually distinct. Yet all of them result from the distribution of ties (patterns of association) that link together actors in networks. These ties, whether material (like financial transactions) or social (like friendship), determine an actor’s ability to directly influence, make connections between, or quickly spread resources to, other actors. An actor’s relative position in a network formed by these ties thus provides an important source of influence over others.
Introduction:~ Access, brokerage, and efficiency are all acknowledged as important sources of political influence – they generate the capacity to be a compelling force on or have effect on the behavior or beliefs of others. These sources are generally seen to be conceptually very different from each other, and measuring these crucial, but elusive, concepts has proven to be difficult. Yet all of them result from the distribution of ties (patterns of association) that link together actors in networks. These ties, whether material (like financial transactions) or immaterial (like friendship), determine an actor’sability to directly influence, make connections between, or quickly spread resources to, other actors. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Chain Gangs and Passed Bucks: Predicting Alliance Patterns in Multipolari
As the new configuration of power emerges, we will need to know not only about its polarity but also about the key security dilemma and perceptual variables that interact with polarity in shaping international alignments. If the potentially unstable condition of multipolarity reemerges, we will need to know how its effects can be mitigated. Since the polarity of the system is generally not subject to conscious manipulation by policymakers, our attention should be especially directed toward the variables that are some- what more subject to conscious control, variables such as the offense-defense balance of technology and perceptions of it.
Waltz argues that the structure of the international system determines what types of international behavior will be rewarded and punished (the process of selection) and, as a result, what types of foreign policy will seem prudent to actors in the system (the process of socialization). This structure comprises a constant element, anarchy, and a variable element, polarity. The fundamental, invariant structural feature, international anarchy, gen- erally selects and socializes states to form balancing alignments in order to survive in the face of threats from aggressive competitors. However, a variable structural feature, polarity, affects the efficiency of the balancing process. keep reading…
A Case about Efficient Transportation Decision-Making Process: Florida Department of Transportation
The decision-making process used to characterize needs and identify FDOT’s focus embodies the “Plan” steps of the EMS process. FDOT’s identification of specific actions and development and implementation efforts highlight, in particular, the “Plan” and “Do” steps of the EMS process. The “Check” and “Act” steps are being pursued as part of full implementation to optimize and, as applicable, expand the ETDM Process.
The ETDM Process creates linkages between land use, transportation, and environmental resource planning initiatives through early, interactive agency involvement. These linkages reduce the time and effort, and, in turn, the cost, to make transportation decisions. These efforts also improve the quality of decisions. Efficiency is gained by two screening events built into the current transportation planning process prior to programming and budgeting. keep reading…
A case study of the effect of implementation of different technical measures for the world-fleet, in a 20-year time window, was performed. The case study results were compared with projected growth of shipping activity and corresponding growth in fuel consumption and emissions. The primary reason for a case study with a time window of 20 years is the slow pace of introduction of new measures in a large world-wide fleet. A short-term analysis (5-10 years) is considered to provide information of limited value, owing to the fact that the replacement ratio of the fleet is low, and implementation of technical measures on existing ships will require a significant effort over time due to the large amount of vessels.
As the uncertainties related to results increases with increasing length of projection, the upper limit for reasonable confidence in the results was chosen to be 20 years. In order to limit the model, results for year 2010 and 2020 are presented. Within the framework of the defined scenarios a set of cas e studies, considering alternative measures for reduction of the fuel consumption or improved efficiency was performed. The world fleet consists of a large variation of ship types and sizes. Keep reading…
A Study about Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering
Abstract: Decisions among alternatives that do not fit rigorous numerical frameworks are common. Such decisions, in which the various aspects of the alternatives are considered simultaneously, are called a tradeoff studies. Tradeoff studies may be more common than optimization problems, but are not generally formalized in written form. Tradeoff studies are broadly recognized and mandated as the method for considering many criteria simultaneously. They are the primary method for making a decision among alternatives listed in the Software Engineering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) process. The field of Decision Making can explain why the mechanics of tradeoff studies are approached with underconfidence.
Introduction: As pertains to the first condition, “a choice among alternatives has been formulated,” it can be said that all decisions are shaped by interested parties, and do not necessarily have a pre-existing structure. It is always possible that a decision can be avoided altogether; that is, the do-nothing alternative can be chosen, without any consideration of the other alternatives, as a means to avoid expense or effort. It is also possible that if there are many alternatives, the cost of using multiple alternatives will be assumed at the cost of efficiency. If the second condition, “a definite time limit for resolution exists,” does not hold, a decision can be postponed indefinitely, and there is no need to obtain and act upon a definite ranking of alternatives at any point in time. read more onDepartment of Systems
Abstract: Since the ARPA net, network designers have built localized mechanisms for statistical multiplexing, load balancing, and failure resilience, often without understanding the broader implications. These mechanisms are all types of resource pooling, which means making a collection of resources behave like a single pooled resource. We believe that the natural evolution of the Internet is that it should achieve resource pooling by harnessing the responsiveness of multipath-capable end systems. We argue that this approach will solve the problems and limitations of the current piecemeal approaches.
Introduction: There is a silent revolution that is reshaping the Internet. It began with the original design of statistical multiplexing through packet switching. As demands on the Internet grew, network operators began to use traﬃc engineering to balance load, and sites began to be multihomed for improved resilience against failures. The revolution is that now end systems are involved in managing wide-area traffic patterns, for example peer-to-peer applications, or load balancing by Google and Akamai across globally-distributed server farms. These mechanisms are all examples of resource pooling. The general concept is that the network’s resources should behave as though they make up a single pooled resource; the aims are to increase reliability, ﬂexibility and efficiency. Keep reading…