Case Study about Effects of Transparency in Procurement Practices on Government Expenditure: Municipal Public Works
Abstract:- This paper tests the impact of enhanced transparency in the bidder capability process, utilizing the encounter dependent upon a research endeavor of civil open work barters. It uncovers that enhanced transparency decreases obtainment require by a most extreme of three percent. Breakdowns of the assessed offering capacity joined together with obtainment framework remarkable to Japan show that the presentation of transparent practices is deficient to warrant proficiency in broad daylight obtainment.
Introduction:- Effectiveness in government obtainment is an essential issue in situations where open obtainment explains an expansive parcel of monetary movement. Government acquisition runs from eight to ten percent of the horrible down home result of major Oecd nations, and this allotment is even bigger in advancing nations. Guaranteeing transparency in the acquisition method is a fundamental determinant of proficiency, as it upgrades the intensity of open acquisition. Obscure and optional acquisition drills normally decrease motivations for firms to enter the business sector, and frequently induce the relationship between government authorities and builders. This can bring about a considerable misfortune in the governments plan as the administration needs to pay an intemperate measure and recompense contracts to undeserving suppliers. Keep reading…
A Study on Worker Organisation and Technological Change: Division of Labour
Abstract: The model developed in this paper explains differences in the division of labour across firms as a result of computer technology adoption. We find that changes in the division of labour can result both from reduced production time and from improved communication possibilities. The first shifts the division of labour towards a more generic structure, while the latter enhances specialisation. Although there exists heterogeneity, our estimates for a representative sample of Dutch establishments in the period 1990-1996 suggest that productivity gains have been the main determinant for shifts in the division of labour within most firms. These productivity gains have induced skill upgrading, while in firms gaining mainly from improved communication possibilities specialisation increased and skill requirements have fallen.
Introduction: The rapid spread of computer technology has led to substantial changes in the division of labour and a shift in the demand for labour in favour of skilled workers. Mostly these changes have been accompanied by ﬂatter organisational structures, larger autonomy for workers or workgroups, the application of innovative human resource management practices, and so on. There are also less typical examples where computerisation is associated with increased specialisation (e.g., the rapid increase of call-centers), scripting of communication with clients and stricter procedures. Although the empirical relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) adoption and organisational change has been well-documented, disagreement remains about the reasons why computerisation provides ﬁrms with incentives to change the structure of their organisation and the skill requirements of their workforce. Keep reading…
A Studies for Determining Hospital Workforce Requirements
Abstract: The difficulty of ensuring an adequate and appropriate distribution of health services, together with increasing financial pressures in the public sector, are forcing many countries to consider using more rigorous methods for determining staffing levels in the health facilities. The Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method is one such method. It uses a form of activity analysis (activity standards), together with measures of utilisation and workload to determine staffing requirements. The method provides a vehicle for assessing localised staffing needs that is believable and which at the same time is sharply different to historic methods. This paper describes experiences in applying this method in hospitals in Turkey.lth manpower is to be optimized. Other issues related to autonomy are also discussed in varying detail.
Introduction: Most countries, both in the developing and developed world, are experiencing the burden of increasing demand for health services and, associated with this, increasing costs in health care provision. As with most countries, Turkey, with limitations on funding of its public health service, must seek to meet these demands with new, more efficient and more radical approaches to health and health care provision. This must include a more effective use of its resources. A critical resource is the health workforce itself, both because it consumes between 70% and 75% of the recurrent budget allocated to health and because it is the skills, capacity and commitment of this resource that will be a major determinant of efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of health care. Keep reading…
A Study about Elucidating Discount Function Properties from a Filtering Perspective
Abstract: This study identifies two properties of discount functions. First, discount functions can be conceived as nonlinear filters, where dynamic discount functions are low pass filters and static discount functions are high pass filters. Second, whether a discount function is static or dynamic depends on how interest rate paths are determined. Since the general principles of discounting and pricing apply to many financial products, the findings of this study are significant to financial theory and practice.
Introduction: Interest rate is a major determinant of theoretical prices of financial products. Some financial institutions have been developing new products by combining valuation models with innovative techniques where the specification of discount functions and interest rate dynamics provide the basis of model building. This study investigates the properties of discount functions using empirical data and provides fresh perspectives for reconsidering the robustness of economic and financial theories concerning financial products. Keep reading..
Case Study about Elucidating Discount Function Properties from a Filtering Perspective
This study identifies two properties of discount functions. First, discount functions can be conceived as nonlinear filters, where dynamic discount functions are low pass filters and static discount functions are high pass filters. Second, whether a discount function is static or dynamic depends on how interest rate paths are determined. Since the general principles of discounting and pricing apply to many financial products, the findings of this study are significant to financial theory and practice.
Introduction: Interest rate is a major determinant of theoretical prices of financial products. Some financial institutions have been developing new products by combining valuation models with innovative techniques where the specification of discount functions and interest rate dynamics provide the basis of model building. This study investigates the properties of discount functions using empirical data and provides fresh perspectives for reconsidering the robustness of economic and financial theories concerning financial products. Because of data availability, this study takes the pricing model of an immediate certain annuity as an example to demonstrate how assumptions regarding interest rates significantly influence price dynamics. Keep reading…
Abstract: Country of origin is an important construct in consumer decision making relative to purchasing foreign or domestic products or services. Consumer ethnocentrism has been shown to be an important determinant in purchasing foreign versus domestic products. The CETSCALE used to measure consumer ethnocentrism was introduced in the U.S. by Shimp and Sharma (1987). Given the importance of country of origin to international marketers, the role of consumer ethnocentrism in decision making has been studied in many countries in order to understand their consumer attitudes toward purchasing foreign products or services. However, the measurement properties of CETSCALE have been evaluated in only a limited number of countries with mixed results.
Introduction: International consumer marketing scholars and managers have stressed the role of globalization in the world economy and its effect on consumer decision making (Saeed, 1994). In the era of globalization, consumers have the choice among products from different national origins. These global consumers do not evaluate products based only on variables such as quality and price but also take into account a variable such as country of origin (COO) (Suh and Kwon, 2002). When consumers are not familiar with the product, they tend to rely on country of origin as a cue to indicate the quality of the product(Johansson et al., 1985). However, sometimes consumers might be convinced of the high quality of a product and still not buy it due to their own ethnocentrism. Keep reading…
Case Study about Customer Satisfaction on Service Quality: Railway Platforms in India
Abstract: Service quality has been viewed as a determinant of customer satisfaction. Different dimensions of service quality have been considered by various researchers. This study identifies components of service quality of Indian Railways at railway platforms. The study is exploratory in nature and uses factor analysis to identify the most important factors of customer satisfaction with service quality. The research methodology is empirical, and a survey of passengers (customers) was conducted. The findings reveal that five factors are considered important for determining satisfaction with railway platforms, the most important of which are refreshments and behavioral factors.
Introduction: Satisfaction from service quality is usually evaluated in terms of technical quality and functional quality (Gronroos 1984). Usually, customers do not have much information about the technical aspects of a service; therefore, functional quality becomes the major factor from which to form perceptions of service quality Service quality may be defined as customer perception of how well a service meets or exceeds their expectations (Czepiel 1990). Service quality can be measured in terms of customer perception, customer expectation, customer satisfaction, and customer attitude.
Case Analysis about Customer Satisfaction in Services Company (Bank)
Abstract: This project is focused on customer satisfaction in service industries, especially in banking sector. In this service sector, the customer satisfaction is pertinent to the service perception and expectation toward internal and external customer. The objective of this project is to identify the quality of service of banking company toward the customer and employee satisfaction by using SERVQUAL, Kano Model, and Herzberg Theory. The methodologies included used SERVQUAL to integrate the gap model between customer’s expectations and perception of the service, while Kano Model is used to mapping the customer needs and expectations as well as the satisfaction criteria of different customer requirements (CRs).
Introduction: Customer satisfaction can be experienced in a variety of situations and connected to both goods and services argued that by assuming a customer will learn from experience, then the decreasing levels of expectations-disconfirmation against goods and services should affect customer satisfaction. This is supported by Alhemoud in the case of banking service in Kuwait, that the customer satisfaction is resulted from any dimension whether or not it is quality related and its judgment may arise from non-quality issues and require experience with the service or provider. In addition, Hsu and Cai said that when customer satisfaction is modelled as a function of disconfirmation arising from discrepancies between prior expectations and actual performance, then the expectations as a critical antecedent of satisfaction becomes a determinant of attitude.
Case Study about Financing Health Promotion: Policy Options
Executive summary: A regional workshop to examine potential innovative financing options for health promotion in countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, on 15-17 December 2008. The consultation reviewed global, regional and country experiences and extensively discussed the policies and strategic actions for establishing sustainable health promotion financing options.
Background: Member States of WHO’s South-East Asia Region had passed through significant demographic and epidemiological transition by 2005 and this has led to a situation where there is a steadily increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Generally, noncommunicable diseases include cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes, obesity, and respiratory and other chronic diseases. These diseases are sometimes referred to as diseases of lifestyle, considering that behaviour is the basic determinant.
Case Study about Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions
Abstract: The value of mortality risk reduction is an important component of the benefits of environmental policies. In recent years, the number, scope, and quality of valuation studies have increased dramatically. Revealed preference studies of wage compensation for occupational risks, on which analysts have primarily relied, have benefited from improved data and statistical methods. Stated preference research has improved methodologically and expanded dramatically. Studies are now available for several health conditions associated with environmental causes, and researchers have explored many issues concerning the validity of the estimates.
Introduction: The value of mortality risk reduction is a major determinant of the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. The quantified benefits of environmental improvements have long been dominated by the effects of reduced air pollution, with reductions in mortality risks accounting for more than 90 percent of quantified benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. EPA 2011). Mortality risk reductions also contribute significantly to the benefits of drinking water regulations and other environmental policies. Regulations often affect risks of heart and lung disease and several types of cancer.