A Case Study about Organizational Structures for Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Southern Africa
Abstract: Throughout Southern Africa there has been a move to decentralize natural resource management (NRM). Decentralization has taken many forms, resulting in different organizational structures for NRM. Fourteen case studies from eight countries can be classed into four types, depending on the key organizations for NRM: (1) districtlevel organizations; (2) village organizations supported by sectoral departments (e.g. Village Forest Committees); (3) organizations or authorities outside the state hierarchy (e.g. traditional authority, residents’ associations), and (4) corporate organizations at the village level (e.g. Trusts, conservancies, property associations). Attitudes towards district-level schemes amongst local people are generally negative. The greater the authority village organizations receive the more likely they are to succeed. In the cases with corporate organizations, local residents have received user or proprietary rights over resources. Such cases reflect the best chances of community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) being successful.
Introduction: In recent years, coinciding with the mainstreaming of participatory approaches in development theory and practice, there has been a policy shift to advocate that local resource users play a more active role in the management of natural resources. There has been considerable progress in decentralizing authority over forests from the state to local communities in Asia, and there are now numerous examples within Africa. Within the wildlife sector there has been considerable activity in the last decade, especially in southern Africa, where almost all countries have programs to allow communities to manage and benefit from wildlife. In Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia, and Namibia, a wildlife management focus has provided the major initiative for CBNRM. In South Africa, land restitution has been the major driving force for more equitable and participatory forms of natural resource management. Keep reading…
A Case Study about National Strategies for Sustainable Development
Morocco lies at the north-western part of the African continent bordered, to the north, by the Mediterranean Sea, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by Algeria, and to the south and south-east by Mauritania. Rabat is the capital city, and the country has 37 provinces. As part of a 1997 decentralization law 16 new regions have been created. Morocco’s long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. During the late 1970s, Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved (CIA World Fact Book 2003).
Morocco faces problems typical of developing countries such as restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic growth. The GDP and GDP per capita are, respectively, $121.8 billion and $3,900 (both 2002 est.), which ranks this country of Medium Human Development. The Human Development Index (HDI) value for 2001 was 0.606 and it ranked 126th of 175 countries. Following structural adjustment programs (supported by IMF, World Bank and Paris Club) the dirham, the country’s currency, is now fully convertible. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Natural Resource Conflict Management
Introduction: Natural resource management is in many ways a form of conflict management. Traditions, customs, rules, laws and policies dealing with issues of access to, and use and management of, natural resources all aim to bring order and predictability to situations where competition and conflicting interests – even in the smallest communities – are present. Such institutions and practices can be termed “proactive” responses seeking to manage the potential for tension and conflict. Although resource management and conflict management are closely linked, only recently have policy-makers, State resource managers, practitioners, academics and others attempted to address the connection.
This recent attention may reflect a growing awareness of the scope, magnitude and implications of natural resource conflicts. Increased competition for natural resources among multiple stakeholders with diverse interests is occurring worldwide within the current trends of globalization, democratization, decentralization and urbanization. Given this new situation, communities often have a greater need and opportunity to participate in sustainable resource management. Along with these new needs and opportunities there are often tensions and conflicts, including disagreement over access rights and lack of consensus on management objectives. Keep reading…
Case Study about Leadership Processes And Practices Without Formal Leadership Structure In The Team Context
Abstract: This study focuses on shared leadership in the team context. Shared leadership is seen as an emergent team property resulting from the distribution of leadership influence across multiple team members. Shared leadership entails sharing power and influence broadly among the team members rather than centralizing it in the hands of a single individual who acts in the clear role of a leader. By identifying the team itself as a key source of influence, this study points to the relational nature of leadership as a social construct where leadership is seen as social process of relating processes that are co-constructed by several team members. Based on recent theoretical developments concerned with relational, practice-based and constructionist approaches to the study of leadership processes.
Introduction: Teams play an increasingly essential role in the functioning of organizations (e.g. Goodwin, Burke, Wildman & Salas 2009; Hills 2007; Kozlowski & Bell 2003), and leadership becomes a crucial factor in the effectiveness of these teams (e.g. O’Reilly, Caldwell, Chatman, Lapiz & Self 2010; Zaccaro, Rittman & Marks 2001). The basic idea behind the use of teams is that team implementations involve some degree of empowerment of members. The team members are provided with increased behavioral discretion and decision-making control as a part of the organizational work system design. Teams typically work on distinct and relatively whole tasks, possess a variety of skills within their membership, and have authority and autonomy to make decisions about how and when work is done, and by whom (e.g. Cohen & Bailey 1997; Katzenbach & Smith 1993; Wellins, Byham & Wilson 1991). Through the decentralization of power, authority and decision-making responsibilities, organizations find flexibility and quick response capabilities necessary to stay competitive in their business. Keep reading..
A Study about Agricultural Research and Extension in Rajasthan, India
Abstract: Decentralization implies an increase in the number of stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of interventions. This paper draws upon the experience of a multi-stakeholder program in India which has sought to increase the contribution of rainfed agriculture to rural household’s economic portfolios. The strategy has been one of enhancing government research and extension service provision through collaboration and coalition building between NGOs and government line departments. Evidence from the last four years demonstrates that coalitions are appropriate vehicles for managing interaction among multiple and diverse organizations. However, as fluid entities without permanent governance systems, coalitions require formalized support mechanisms to function effectively.
Introduction: In India, current moves towards decentralization and devolution in local governance imply an increase in the number of stakeholders involved in decisions and control of resources. In agricultural research and extension these trends translate into the rhetoric of demand-driven policies and programs. However, practice often falls short of expectations, particularly in rainfed farming locations. Here, while poverty is commonplace and agriculture constitutes a major part of households livelihood portfolios, agricultural productivity remains low and cultural contexts militate against the farmers’ voice being heard by research and extension professionals. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Effectiveness and Sustainability on Education Projects
Abstract: The past few decades have seen an undoubtedly rising trend in the decentralization of power, accompanied by financial managerial responsibilities at local government levels. This trend is even more apparent in developing countries. A variety of reasons are attributable to this increase. They include globalization of the corporate economy, global and economic crises as well as democratization initiatives by national governments and international development agencies such as the World Bank. While this study confirms this assertion, it also highlights the tremendous challenges that such decentralized initiatives face, particularly relating to the contexts of developing countries.
This study aims to establish the effectiveness and sustainability of Kenya‟s Constituency Development Fund as a fiscal decentralized initiative aimed at poverty reduction. The study focuses on the contribution of CDF on education and how this has brought about changes related to increased access to education, better education facilities and improved performance. The study also seeks to highlight prime factors such as participation in decision making as necessary for the implementation of the CDF, while also highlighting those factors that hinder the effective and sustainable implementation of the program. Keep reading…
A Study about Constituency Development Funds: Scoping
Executive Summary: Constituency Development Fund (CDF) schemes are decentralisation initiatives which send funds from the central government to each constituency for expenditure on development projects intended to address particular local needs. A key feature of CDF schemes is that Members of Parliament (MP) typically exert a tremendous degree of control over how funds are spent. This scoping paper provides an overview of CDFs: when, where and how they have emerged worldwide; identifies the key features of CDFs hich impact on their performance; outlines the arguments and evidence available for and against CDFs, and; investigates the opportunities and possible future research from an advocacy perspective.
Despite the variety of forms and approaches in different countries, the following essential elements are identified which help to distinguish CDFs from other decentralization initiatives or community-based development programmes. First, funds are raised by national government and disbursed at local level. Second, funds are allocated per constituency and MPs have some degree of control over the spending. Lastly, funds are intended for development projects which reflect localized needs and preferences. Keep reading…
A Study about Public Financial Management for PRSP Implementation in Malawi
Summary: Recent years have seen a number of fundamental and far-reaching reorientations in the debate on international development policy and cooperation; for one, Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) – initially formulated as a prerequisite for debt relief under the HIPC initiative – have become widely accepted as comprehensive strategic frameworks for many developing countries’ efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Prepared through a participatory process, PRS Papers (PRSPs) are meant to describe a country’s macroeconomic, structural and social policies and programmes to promote growth and reduce poverty as well as associated external financing needs.
Research Approach: To study these complex relations, a case study seems the most adequate approach; Malawi was chosen as a typical showcase for a poverty-stricken developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa, pursuing both, the implementation of a national PRSP and an ambitious decentralization agenda in parallel. In early 2005 Malawi also provided a somewhat special and particularly interesting context for this study, due to its recent history: Gross irregularities and massive overspending had led a number of donors to suspend development assistance in 2001. Keep reading…
Case Studies about Innovative Domestic Credit Enhancement Entities and Techniques
Executive Summary: With decentralization, sub-sovereign governments are expected to take on increasing responsibilities in providing infrastructure services. The mobilization of local currency ﬁnancing to match local currency revenues is essential to develop sustainable infrastructure ﬁnance at the sub-sovereign level. This paper reviews innovative local credit enhancement entities and techniques that help mobilize domestic commercial debt resources for sub-sovereign infrastructure ﬁnance.
These credit enhancement schemes are provided either by a ﬁnancial entity or a program, and mitigate borrower credit risk and liquidity/market risk commonly observed in sub-sovereign lending in developing countries. (In these cases, ready-available borrower credit proﬁle and developed long-term debt markets often do not exist). Keep reading…
Study about People Participation in Development Projects at Grass-Root Level: Alampur and Jagannathpur Union Parishad
Abstract: Despite participatory development process is given prominence in National Rural Development Policy, people-centric development culture has not yet been institutionalized in rural Bangladesh. In the academic discourse decentralization has long come to be regarded as the best way of integrating local people into the web of development. Development practitioners, however, see decentralization as a necessary but not a sufficient condition for involving cross-section of local people into development intervention. Because of elite domination a powerful few customarily overshadow the powerless mass, the poor and the marginalized and successfully block their meaningful integration in local government bodies in Bangladesh.
Study Background : People’s participation is the sine qua non for development. The notion of people’s participation in their development has been gaining momentum in the process of human empowerment and development. Contemporary development scholars have been advocating the inclusion of people’s participation in development projects as they believe the avowed objectives of any project cannot be fully achieved unless people meaningfully participate in it. Stone (1989) argues that people’s participation in development projects may help bring effective social change rather than impose an external culture on a society. Similarly, referring to the experience of rural development programs, Shrimpton (1989) states that community participation in the design and management of a project greatly enhances the likelihood of project success due to improved goodness of fit and increased sustainability. Keep reading…