Introduction: Bunker Fuel is traded in US Dollars world-wide, every major port has its own set of rates and therefore it becomes quite complicated to write a comparative study on an alternative to the US Dollar as a reference currency for bunker fuel. For this reason we have taken the pricing system of WTSA WTSA has a system of bunker fuel pricing and different surcharges (e.g. refrigerated containers) that is clearly explained on their website. Our starting point has prices in US Dollars; these prices represent our starting point. When we turn US Dollars prices into Wocu1prices we introduce an element of volatility that needs to be considered when we look at the results of this case study. The exchange rate USD/Wocu has its own volatility and therefore any Wocu result would be better if we could have a starting point for the Wocu without that element of volatility
The availability of data in the WTSA website allows us to use what is essentially a pricing structure aimed at the US Dollar market for a generic trend for bunker fuel prices across different markets. This case study deals with bunker fuel in an oversimplified way; there is no consideration of surcharges and of different pricing for different agreements. However, the principles behind the case we are discussing remain the same whatever the agreement and it is safe to assume that the surcharges (priced in US Dollars themselves) will behave according to similar logic. Although the shipping world is fairly used to use the US Dollar as their main working currency, the clients of shipping lines ultimately pay in their local currency. We shall show how using the Wocu means a reduced volatility and therefore easier and more reliable cost forecasts. Easier and more reliable assessments of future shipping costs may be one of the decisive factors in the decision to enter new markets. Keep reading..
A Case Study about Situations of Fertility Stall in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract: A comparative study of fertility trends since 1950 in 30 countries from sub-Saharan Africa revealed several cases of “fertility stall”, that is a change from downward fertility trends to flat- or even slightly rising- trends for some time, usually a few years: Ghana (1998-2003), Kenya (1995-2003), Madagascar in urban areas (1987-1993), Nigeria (1999-2003), Rwanda in rural areas (1999-2005), Tanzania in rural areas (1995-2004). In a first part, the paper presents the statistical evidence of changes in fertility trends. In a second part, the analysis focuses on possible causes of these changes. Fertility stalls were often associated with changes in two proximate determinants (contraceptive use and age at marriage) and in two socio-economic correlates (income and labour force participation). The paper concludes to a variety of situations leading to different causality in the various countries, including one case (Ghana) for which no reasonable explanation could be found from the available data.
Introduction: The concept of “fertility transition”, defined as the path from natural fertility (high levels) to replacement fertility (low levels), hides a wide variety of local situations: the levels of fertility at onset may differ markedly between countries; fertility may be rising prior to thetransition; the time from peak fertility to replacement fertility may vary from a few decades to a century or more; fertility may level-off around replacement level for a while, then undergo further decline, or fertility decline might continue below replacement level without stopping.Furthermore, an unexpected rise might occur at some time, such as the well documented baby boom in Europe and the United States after the World War II, or fertility decline might stop (fertility stall) for some years during the course of the transition. Keep reading…
Abstract: The Township Health Centers (THCs), which serve China’s rural residents are hospitals with Chinese characteristics. A comparative study of two THCs found that their performance is linked to their successful adaptation to the new economic and institutional context within which they operate. It found that health facility managers need to balance the need to generate revenue with the need to maintain their good reputation with government and the community It identified three major influences on their performance: the pattern of economic incentives, formal and informal rules of behavior and the history and management arrangements of the facility. It concluded that tailoring administrative rules to embrace the market, responding actively to social expectations and proper selection of THC director are all beneficial to THC performance.
Introduction: Township Health Centers (THCs) are a major provider of health services for China’s rural population. They have faced big challenges during the transition to a market economy associated with major changes in the institutional context within which they operate (Bloom 2005). This paper explores how two successful facilities have balanced the contradictory pressures of expectations by government and communities for certain standards of service and the need to generate revenue. It concludes that future reform initiatives will need to address influences associated with both financial incentives and those associated with the broader social responsibility of health centers. keep reading…
Case Study about Two Successful Township Health Centers in Rural China
Abstract: The Township Health Centers (THCs), which serve China’s rural residents are hospitals with Chinese characteristics. A comparative study of two THCs found that their performance is linked to their successful adaptation to the new economic and institutional context within which they operate. It found that health facility managers need to balance the need to generate revenue with the need to maintain their good reputation with government and the community It identified three major influences on their performance: the pattern of economic incentives, formal and informal rules of behavior and the history and management arrangements of the facility.
Introduction: Township Health Centers (THCs) are a major provider of health services for China’s rural population. They have faced big challenges during the transition to a market economy associated with major changes in the institutional context within which they operate (Bloom 2005). This paper explores how two successful facilities have balanced the contradictory pressures of expectations by government and communities for certain standards of service and the need to generate revenue. It concludes that future reform initiatives will need to address influences associated with both financial incentives and those associated with the broader social responsibility of health centers. Keep reading…
A Study about Entertainment Preferences: Preference Learning for Cognitive Modeling
Abstract Learning from preferences, which provide means for expressing a subject’s desires, constitutes an important topic in machine learning research. This paper presents a comparative study of four alternative instance preference learning algorithms (both linear and nonlinear). The case study investigated is to learn to predict the expressed entertainment preferences of children when playing physical games built on their personalized playing features (entertainment modeling).
Two of the approaches are derived from the literature—the large-margin algorithm (LMA) and preference learning with Gaussian processes—while the remaining two are custom-designed approaches for the problem under investigation: meta-LMA and neuroevolution. Preference learning techniques are combined with feature set selection methods permitting the construction of effective preference models, given suitable individual playing features. The underlying preference model that best reﬂects children preferences is obtained through neuroevolu tion: 82.22% of cross-validation accuracy in predicting reported entertainment in the main set of game survey experimentation. Read more on Entertainment Preferences
A Case Study about Software Development in a Virtual Organizational Culture
Abstract: This study is part of an ongoing comparative study of various types of open software communities including both free and open source software projects. This study examines how the organizational cultural beliefs and values of a free software virtual organization influence software development processes.
It provides examples that illustrate the importance of personal motivation and a sense of working as a team in the perpetuation of a virtual work community. It presents the world of the project as a virtual organizational culture that embodies the beliefs of free software and freedom of choice, and the values of community building and cooperative work. Keep reading…
Case Study about Formal and Informal Specifications through an Industrial
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss a case study in which we have taken a problem from industry and specified it both in B and UML. The object of our case study is the teletext module of a new generation TV. We have discussed our experience, and presented an analysis of both the specifications. We found that, in order to specify a real-time event-driven system, some amount of formality is necessary, which UML does not usually provide. Our industrial collaborators are considering changing their specification process basedon our findings.
Introduction: In this paper, we perform a comparative study of formal specifications and informal specifications. We have taken a medium size system from a project in industry, and have specified it both formally and informally. For the formal specification, we used B [Abr 96] as the specification language, and for the informal specification, we used UML [Boo 99]. Our most important conclusion is that UML is not sufficient to specify requirements, which may be complex and rigorous in nature. Some amount of formality is necessary to take care of particularly complex issues. Conversely we found that the UML was helpful for visualising the structure of the models compared with a formal specification. keep reading..
Abstract:Recent advance in the filed of Information and communication technology and usages of internet in rural and urban area has a great social economical input on the lives of the people all over the glob. The internet is changing the way we do the things today. The online system like e-government, ecommerce, e-ticket, e-education, e-book, e-bill etc has made our lives easy like never before.
The success of any on-line (internet based) service or application largely depends on information exchange, material transaction and most important of all monitory transaction various. E-payment system fails today to provide monitory transaction concepts and also different usages. The basic working of e-payment solutions are differ and usages also differ. All these types of solutions have different types of limitation regarding there working mechanism, type of uses, characteristic etc…
DTH, Cable TV and Terrestrial TV – A Comparative Study
Television is the best partner of everybody for entertainment and information. Since the days of 1950s when black and white transmission received from Yagi antenna, there are continuous improvements in the quality of reception. Changing face of analog to digital signal is also on the final verge.
Analog and digital signal should not be confused with methods of transmission. Methods of communication are analogous to travelling by car, air, metro or else. Traveler inside can be analog or digital.
Case Studies about ABC Adoption in Hospitals: A Comparison across Canada and Ireland
Abstract: Despite widespread research on activity based costing and activity-based management within the context of health sector reforms, little cross-national analyses have been performed. This paper is a comparative study of the adoption of activity based costing in Irish and Canadian hospitals.
Introduction: Today, there is a strong media focus on the increasing cost of health care inCanada, Ireland, the United Kingdom (UK), the United States(US) and, indeed, in many other countries around the world leading to public policy and private sector effortsto contain these costs. This givesrise to a common concern inthese countries – how best to control the rate of growth in health care expenditures whilststill delivering ood healthcare.