Studies about Transit Oriented Development Around Bus Rapid Transit Systems in North America and Australia
Executive Summary: Many cities are promoting “transit-oriented development” (TOD) as a sustainable growth management strategy. At the same time, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is becoming increasingly popular as a flexible, cost-effective rapid transit mode. The purpose of this report is to provide examples of BRT-based TOD as a resource for policymakers, public agencies, and the development community. The report uses a case-based research methodology, examining four developed country cities characterized by high private car usage and significant TOD around their BRT corridor.
We found that the type and level of investment occurring near BRT stations appears comparable to the experience with TOD near rail transit. We also found that planning agencies generally made no distinction between BRT and rail in terms of its ability to attract TOD. Indeed, the public agencies and private developers we interviewed generally were enthusiastic about the potential of BRT to attract TOD, with many developers reporting that BRT has a “very positive” impact on their property values. Finally, there did not appear to be a direct correlation between the level of public investment in the BRT system and the level of private TOD investment. For example, one of the most significant TOD’s we observed is located on the ork Region’s VIVA BRT, which was the least infrastructure-intensive BRT analyzed. Keep reading..
Study about Enhancing South-South and Triangular Cooperation
Introduction: South-South and triangular cooperation has become a major subject of international development discussions. One of the key issues identi#ed in such discussions is the lack of information on South-South and triangular cooperation implemented by di!erent parties, and the need to promote knowledge-sharing on the practices of South-South and triangular cooperation, especially including existing good practice. Against this background, a UNDP workshop entitled ‘Increasing E!ectiveness of South-South Cooperation for Development’ was held on 18 December 2008 for the purpose of sharing knowledge among practitioners of South-South and triangular cooperation.
This study was conducted as a follow-up to the UNDP workshop. Its overall purpose is to contribute to knowledge-sharing and learning for improving the practices of SouthSouth and triangular cooperation. It examines current practices of South-South cooperation in several areas identi#ed as key challenges and constraints by various conferences and studies. These issues are: policy and institutional framework; comparative advantages; demand-driven approach; sustainability; and achievement of results. The methodology of the study consisted of: i) a questionnaire survey of pivotal and beneciary countries as well as donor and international organizations; ii) case studies of good practices in 12 pivotal countries and 4 bene#ciary countries; and iii) a synthesis of the results of the survey and case studies. Keep reading…
Studies about Perceptions of Company Performance: Impression Management
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate two particular forms of impression management commonly found in corporate annual reports, the distortion of narratives and graph manipulation. Little is known about the potential effects these manipulations have on decisions made by annual report users. A laboratory experiment was performed in which participants were provided with a pack of information for two fictional companies and required to make an investment decision. No significant difference was found between the investment decisions of the participants, confirming previous findings that impression management does not affect corporate annual report users’ perceptions of company performance.
Introduction: Many different types of impression management have been identified as occurring in corporate annual reports. However, the potential effect of these manipulations is not known (Stanton et al, 2004). The aim in this study is to identify the effects of two forms of impression management on corporate annual report users’ perceptions of company performance in an experimental setting. The first form of manipulation considered is that of the directness of Chairman’s Statements, a narrative commonly found in corporate annual reports. Directness relates to the placement of information within a narrative. The second manipulation of interest relates to graph measurement distortion which occurs when the change in a graph is proportionately greater than the change in the underlying data, resulting in potential misrepresentation of the data. Keep reading…
This paper examines from various angles the complex relationship between intellectual-property rights and technological innovation. Part I summarizes the principal economic theories concerning how intellectual-property systems can stimulate or impede technological progress. Part II discusses the extent to which those theories find support in the histories in the United States of four technology-intensive industries: pharmaceutical products; biotechnology; aviation; and computer software. The Conclusion attempts to extract from those four historical case studies some generalizations concerning when and how intellectual-property rights might sensibly be employed to foster innovation.
We begin with some familiar generalizations: Technological innovations belong to the category of objects and services that economists refer to as “public goods.” The distinctive characteristics of public goods are that they can be replicated easily and that they are “nonrivalrous” – in other works, enjoyment of them by one person does not prevent enjoyment of them by other persons. Those characteristics in combination create a danger that the pace of technological innovation will fall below socially optimal levels. Why? Because potential innovators will know that, once they reveal their breakthroughs to the world, other people will be able to take advantage of them for free. Keep reading..
Studies about Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions
In June 1992, after production and importation of the carpets had commenced, Indofurn sought advice on copyright permission from the Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia. A letter was written to the Aboriginal Arts Management Association (AAMA, later called NIAAA) informing them of the reproduction of their paintings and the importation of the carpets. The letter enclosed photographs of the carpets and details of the artists together with a cheque for A$750.5 The cheque was claimed by the respondents to represent 8% of the landed costs of A$180 per carpet.
Banduk’s work is central to the cultural heritage of her people, the Rirratingu clan. The original work is a six colour linocut, ink on paper. She created the work in 1986. By drawing original art onto plates, she made a small number of prints. The work was made under commission for the Australian National University for the Bicentenary celebrated in Australia in 1988. Keep reading onTraditional Cultural Expressions
This page contains a series of case studies about the administrative, policy, and technical development of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) that were designated subsequent to the 1990 Census. Just as the 1990 Census resulted in the designation of new urbanized areas (UZAs), which prompted the need to establish MPOs, new UZAs were defined by the 2000 Census.
These new UZAs, in turn, need to form either a new free-standing MPO, or affiliate with an existing MPO if one is adjacent. The case studies were prepared to assist local and state officials who are in the process of addressing newly designated urbanized areas. Keep reading…
Study about Staffing and Administrative Capacity of Metropolitan Planning Oranizations
Executive Summary:~ MPOs were formed and structured to accomplish the prevailing planning tasks of the late 20th century. Recent federal legislation and regulations coupled with technology improvements have increased the complexity of MPO activities,requiring increased planning capacity and resources. Identifying effective strategies for maximizing planning capacity and organizational efficiency has become a challenge for MPOs across the country. This research report documents how MPOs have structured their organizations and allocated staff resources.
MPO organizational structure includes administrative information like governance, host agency relationships, budgeting, and work planning. The report also addresses staffing arrangements, technical skills, use of consultant labor, and employee retention. Effective and unique practices are documented through case studies interspersed in the report. The intent of this research is to help MPO leaders evaluate their staffing and organizational structures in light of their current and an ici pated responsibilities, budget and policy environment. Keep reading…
Studies about Transportation Public-Private Partnerships in the United States
Abstract:~ Highway transportation agencies across the United States are facing a fiscal challenge caused by the growing gap between the costs of providing and preserving the highway infrastructure and available highway program funding. The inability of motor fuel taxes to provide adequate funding has prompted transportation policymakers to consider alternative ways to finance and deliver needed transportation infrastructure.
Introduction:~ Since the late 1980s, public-private partnerships (PPP) have come to the fore in various countries around the world in the provision of infrastructure. PPPs provide an opportunity for governments to provide social capital infrastructure in the form of schools, hospitals and roads while benefiting from greater cost-efficiency that may be achieved from private sector involvement. It is argued that alignment of incentives drives the efficiencies that are derived from PPP arrangements. Keep reading…
Studies about Sacramento Blueprint: Sacramento, CA
Summary:~ The Blueprint project is a regional vision planning process that addresses land use, transportation, air quality, housing, and other regional issues. One of the core goals of the Blueprint process was to incorporate the opinions and views of a wide range of community members in planning for future growth and development. The Blueprint development process used innovative public engagement technologies to provide real-time feedback on the effects of different land use decisions on transportation, open space, and air quality.
The visualization techniques were linked to the regional land use and travel demand models, providing a solid data-driven foundation. Since adoption of the Blueprint Preferred Scenario in December 2004, the Sacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG) has worked with local and regional governments to support implementation of the Blueprint and incorporate its principles into other regional planning activities. keep reading…
A Study about Environmental Information Systems in Corporate Engineering: Limits and Perspectives
Abstract:~ In this contribution two case studies are presented which demonstrate approaches to environmental assessment of industrial products, namely car components. Environmental Information Systems are the tool of choice for the estimation of mass flows within the systems and throughout the entire life cycle.
Introduction:~ What are the main forces of strategic and operational environmental management in industry and administration? Primarily these are criteria like economy and safety of goods and services. Environmental aspects of goods and services are mostly viewed in the framework of legislative directives and/or are a question of image or public relations. Keep reading…