Introduction: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a multilateral financial institution owned by 63 members, 44 from Asia and the Pacific region and 19 from other parts of the world. Established in 1966, ADB’s overarching goal is to reduce poverty in the Asia and Pacific. The two largest shareholders of ADB are Japan and USA, each accounting for about sixteen percent of the total subscribed capital. To achieve the goal of reducing poverty in member countries, ADB supports activities in its developing member countries (DMCs) to promote pro-poor economic growth, inclusive social development and good governance. Under its Long-term Strategic Framework (2001-2005), ADB takes into account in its activities three crosscutting themes: private sector development, regional cooperation and environmental sustainability.
Since its establishment, ADB has maintained its role as a catalyst in promoting the development of the most populous regions of the world. ADB usually extends its loans and equity investments to the developing member countries (DMCs) for their socio-economic upliftment. It also provides technical assistance for planning and executive development projects and programmes and for advisory services. ADB also works for the promotion and facilitation of public and private capital for development. Thus, ADB bears distinguishing features of its “Asia-ness”. About 60 percent of its staffs and share capital come from Asia. It’s Headquarters is located in the Philippines, one of the emerging economies of Asia. Keep reading…
A Study about Effectiveness of DFID’s Engagement with the Asian Development Bank
Executive Summary: This review considers the effectiveness of DFID’s engagement with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its influence on the Bank’s activities. ADB is one of several multilateral banks that DFID works with to reduce poverty. ADB’s core skills are in delivering large-scale infrastructure projects in middle-income countries, complementing DFID’s focus on the poorest through governance, growth, health and education.
Overview: As a shareholder, the UK has a positive influence on ADB’s strategy, policy and internal reform – these are yet to result, however, in ADB achieving its own impact targets. Through the replenishment of the ADF, DFID has promoted a continuing focus on inclusive growth, gender, climate change and operational effectiveness. In order to improve ADB’s delivery of outcomes, DFID needs to influence the Bank to improve project management and real-time monitoring. Keep reading….
A Case Studies about the Philippines: Involuntary Resettlement Safeguards ADB
The case studies presented in this report were conducted in preparation of the special evaluation study (SES)1 of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) 1995 Policy on Involuntary Resettlement (IR)2. This SES was conducted by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) upon the request of the Development Effectiveness Committee (DEC) of ADB’s Board of Directors. The evaluation of the IR Policy was carried out within a limited time frame so that it could contribute to the scheduled review process leading to the update of ADB’s safeguard policies in 2008.
The evaluation of the IR policy sought to (i) provide an overview of the scale and nature of IR in ADB operations; (ii) examine the extent of application of the IR policy; (iii) review trends; (iv) make pertinent comparisons with other systems; and (v) provide OED’s assessment of the policy’s relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability within the context of past experience, changing circumstances, and new demands. The SES looked into the level of compliance of projects with the IR policy; the policy’s probable impact on affected persons (APs) and on institutional development as well as into incremental costs and transaction costs for ADB and its clients. keep reading…
A Case Study about Impact of Rural Roads on Poverty Reduction: Based Analysis
Executive Summary: Participatory poverty assessments have long identified remoteness and isolation as critical components of poverty. Although it is widely assumed that investments in rural roads reduce poverty, there is little evidence of the ways in which these impacts occur or what their determinants are. Through the collection of empirical evidence from a cluster of case studies drawn from past Asian Development Bank (ADB) operations, the study addresses this void. The objective of the study is to improve the design of rural road components to achieve sustainable benefits for the poor. Realizing that pragmatic recommendations need to capture the real-life mpediments that often plague project design assumptions, the study focuses narrowly and deeply on selected case study villages within a project area. This enables an understanding of the factors that influence impacts on poverty.
Rather than relying on income poverty line definitions, the study analyzes poverty as a multidimensional concept. It adopts an assets-based approach to understanding poverty, where poverty is defined as a deprivation in assets and entitlements essential to life, and a susceptibility to periodic physical and economic shocks, and seasonal crises. The study compares project sites with control sites and uses a variety of tools to gather relevant qualitative and quantitative data and to validate findings. Undoubtedly, in all case study projects, the poor and very poor benefited substantially from social impacts of rural roads through access to state services in areas such as health, education, agricultural extension, and provision of information. Improved rural roads create the conditions for better access of people to services, and of services to the village. Roads allow regular contact with the outside world and bring remote areas within the purview of the state and other networks. Such improvements reduce the perception of isolation and remoteness among the poor and very poor. Keep reading….
A Case Study about Asian Development Bank: Involuntary Resettlement Safeguards
Introduction: The case studies presented in this report were conducted in preparation of the special evaluation study (SES) of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) 1995 Policy on Involuntary Resettlement (IR). This SES was conducted by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) upon the request of the Development Effectiveness Committee (DEC) of ADB’s Board of Directors. The evaluation of the IR Policy was carried out within a limited time frame so that it could contribute to the scheduled review process leading to the update of ADB’s safeguard policies in 2008. It was completed September 2006.
The evaluation of the IR policy sought to (i) provide an overview of the scale and nature of IR in ADB operations; (ii) examine the extent of application of the IR policy; (iii) review trends; (iv) make pertinent comparisons with other systems; and (v) provide OED’s assessment of the policy’s relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability within the context of past experience, changing circumstances, and new demands. The SES looked into the level of compliance of projects with the IR policy; the policy’s probable impact on affected persons (APs) and on institutional development as well as into incremental costs and transaction costs for ADB and its clients. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Judicial Reform in Asia: ADB’s Experience
The case study marshals and evaluates a substantial body of new evidence from Asia which has been remarkably under-studied in the academic discourse. Th is body of experience contributes timely evidence of practice which is significant in supporting a number of key propositions. First, it reveals the still evolving nature of the judicial reform enterprise. Second, it demonstrates that ADB has created some ‘results’.
Third, it remains difficult to find any evidence of ‘success’ owing to the continuing conceptual fuzziness in the purpose and goals of endeavor, and the continuing lack of systematic monitoring and evaluation. Fourth, there are some tentative indications of an emerging capacity to demonstrate developmental effectiveness. While this evidence generally conforms to the global literature, the recency of endeavor in this region reveals a dynamic process of evolution, and highlights the incubation of a potentially paradigmatic shift in reform approach. Keep reading….
The Climate Investment Funds (CIF) are giving developing countries an urgently needed jump-start to mitigate and manage the challenges of climate change. Strong climate outcomes are contributing to national development priorities through CIF programs and projects.CIF pilot countries and regions, covering 49 countries worldwide, are using CIF resources as springboards to launch national planning efforts across institutions and stakeholder groups, to leverage substantial additional resources, and to implement innovative, country-led investments for clean technology, sustainable management of forests, increased energy access through renewable energy, and climate-resilient development.
Delivered through four windows, CIF financing includes grants, highly concessional funds, and risk mitigation instruments that leverage significant financing from governments, the private sector, multilateral development banks (MDBs), and other sources. Funding flows through the five MDBs—the African Development Bank (AfDB), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and World Bank Group (WBG), including International Finance Corporation (IFC)— who collaborate closely under the leadership of the government and support design and implementation of CIF-funded projects and programs. Keep reading…
Case Study for Stakeholder Engagement in Preparing Investment Plans for the Climate Investment Funds
In 2008 the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and a group of donor countries developed the concept of climate investment funds (CIF) providing support to developing countries to initiate transformational change toward low-carbon and climate-resilient development. The focus of the funding is on investment with the opportunity to blend resources from the CIF, MDBs, govern-ment, and the private sector. The first step in gaining access to funding is the preparation of a countryinvestment plan. The investment plan, developed under the leadership of the government and withsupport from the MDBs, is a multiyear proposal identifying how CIF resources together with cofi-nancing will support the country’s existing development strategies.
Cambodia consultations for the PPCR were carried out in the spirit of CIF and ADB guidanceand had a positive impact on climate change awareness and government leadership in the process.The unanticipated withdrawal of the World Bank from leadership of the process had some negativeconsequences, but ultimately consultations resulted in a strong Strategic Program for ClimateResilience (SPCR), with some innovative components. The consultations revealed some of thelimitations of the mission-based approach, which tended to reinforce the perception that processes were MDB driven. A more strategic approach to communications and continuity of information flows would have enhanced the consultation process. Keep reading..
A Study about Mainstreaming Climate Change into Community Development Strategies and Plans
Abstract: Climate change adaptation planning in Thailand and elsewhere in Southeast Asia has focused primarily on minimizing the impact of future climate change. The resulting preoccupation with the uncertainty of climate change predictions has hindered the implementation of adaptation policies. A paradigm shift toward mainstreaming climate change into development planning, and away from addressing adaptation separately from development, can reduce the inaction of policy makers. By taking into consideration the range of possible risks and vulnerabilities that may arise from future climate and socioeconomic change scenarios, mainstreaming can reduce the reliance on certainty in predictions when developing plans for a community. The subsequent increase in a community’s resilience in the face of change is likely to lead to development that is more sustainable. A case study of the Lao-oi district in Thailand illustrates such a paradigm shift in planning, and proposes a framework for mainstreaming climate change into community development plans.
Introduction: In recent years, adaptation to climate change has been brought to the attention of policy planners in Thailand and throughout Southeast Asia due to the region’s high exposure to climate risks (ADB, 2009; World Bank, ADB and JICA, 2010). The Thai Ministry of National Resources and Environment launched the National Climate Change Strategy 2008-2012 with an objective to “build up preparedness for adaptation and coping with climate variability and change in extreme weather events”. One of the six strategies is “to build adaptive capacity to cope with climate change and to reduce vulnerability of various sectors” (Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, 2008). Adaptation is featured in the National Master Plan on Climate Change 2011-2050, which is still being finalized (Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, 2011), the 11th National Economic and Social Development Plan for 2012-2016 (NSEDB, 2011), and the draft of the National Master Plan to Cope with Climate Change, Energy Price Fluctuation and World Food Crisis (Chula Unisearch, 2010). Keep reading….
Waste management is the collection, transport,processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. This case study examines the history and philosophy of onsite wastewater regulation and management in Fairfax County, Virginia.