Introduction: Innovation in a public sector context has been defined as the ‘creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness or quality of outcomes’. In short, innovation is the application of new ideas to produce better outcomes.Innovation occurs across the spectrum of Australian government public sector entities, from policy development to program delivery, from regulatory approaches to use of technology, from organisational innovation to provision of new or enhanced services. Importantly, innovation is a means to an end, not an end in itself. An appreciation of the importance and diversity of innovation, and how to achieve it, should be part of the knowledge, skills and behaviours of every public servant.
Drivers for innovation: Innovation is motivated and driven by a variety of short, medium and long‑term factors. In the public service the driving imperative for innovation is the need to respond effectively to new and changing government and community expectations in an increasingly complex environment. Examples include the consequences of an ageing population, addressing intractable social problems such as drug abuse, Indigenous disadvantage, supporting communities in rural and remote Australia, national security and counter‑terrorism, increasing concerns about climate change, the appropriate regulation of global financial markets and sustainable, effective and fair international development assistance. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Discovering Optimal Imitation Strategies
Abstract: This paper develops a general policy for learning the relevant features of an imitation task. We restrict our study to imitation of manipulative tasks or gestures. The imitation process is modeled as a hierarchical optimization system, which minimizes the discrepancy between two multi-dimensional datasets. To classify across manipulation strategies, we apply a probabilistic analysis to data in Cartesian and joint spaces. We determine a general metric that optimizes the policy of task reproduction, following strategy determination. The model successfully discovers strategies in six different imitative tasks and controls task reproduction by a full body humanoid robot.
Introduction: This work aims at developing a general policy to drive robot learning by imitation and robot programming through demonstration. It follows a trend of research that aims at deﬁning a formal mathematical framework for imitation learning. Imitation learning needs to address the following three key questions: ‘what to imitate’, ‘how to imitate’ and ‘when to imitate’. Previous work has essentially focused on the question of “how to imitate”. The imitation mechanism was, then, aimed at a precise reproduction of a pre-speciﬁed sub-set of task features, such as hand–object actions (picking up a block, rotating the block). Keep reading…
A Case Study about Innovation, Imitation, and New Product Performance
Abstract: This paper compares the effects of innovation and imitation strategies on new product performance and examines their contingency across different market conditions in China. The empirical results from a cross-industry survey show that, compared with an imitation strategy, an innovation strategy leads to better new product performance. Furthermore, the benefits of an innovation strategy over an imitation strategy become stronger as market demand is increasingly uncertain, technology changes rapidly, and competition intensifies. The author compares the findings with the predictions put forward in previous Western-based literature and discusses the implications of the findings in light of China’s unique market characteristics.
Introduction: The importance of innovation in new product developments is well recognized (Wind & Mahajan, 1997), in that developing and bringing to market innovative products ahead of competitors can generate various benefits in economic, preemptive, technological, and behavioral factors (e.g., Kerin, Varadarajan, & Peterson, 1992; Lieberman & Montgomery, 1988). A successful innovator therefore can outsell even superior late entrants, build a large market share, and enjoy a sustainable competitive advantage (Bowman & Gatignon, 1996; Carpenter & Nakamoto, 1989; Robinson & Min, 2002). From this perspective, firms should always invest heavily in R&D and speed new products to market, i.e., an innovation strategy is key to long-term success. Keep reading….
A Studies about the Structural Model of National Innovation Capability
Abstract: National innovation system plays a crucial role in economic development, yet previous studies are mainly focused on its theoretical framework reviews. From the system’s point of view, it lacks any relevant study on the structural components of the national innovation capability. This study adopts a systematic approach to verify that the national innovation capability is consist of innovation resources, innovation demands, innovation diffusion and innovation outputs. In addition, it’s also important to start from the perspective of the policymakers for the analysis of the national innovation system.
Introduction: Global economic development in the 21st century has been increasingly dependent on the production, diffusion and dissemination of knowledge, and innovation based on knowledge and information has thus become the important means to maintain competitive advantage (Malerba, 2005). Due to the complex interactive relationship between the individual elements of a knowledge innovation system, British scholar Freeman proposed the concept of the national innovation system for the first time in 1987. Keep reading..
A Case Study about a Grassroots Innovation Pipeline within a Large Software Company
Abstract: Establishing a grassroots innovation pipeline has come to the fore as strategy for nurturing innovation within large organizations. A key element of such pipelines is the use of an idea management system that enables and encourages community ideation on defined business problems. The value of these systems can be highly sensitive to design choices, as different designs may influence participation.
We report the results of a case study examining the use of one particular idea management system and pipeline. We analyzed the content, interaction, and participation from three creativity challenges organized via the pipeline and conducted interviews with users to uncover motivations for participating and perceptions of the outcomes. Additional interviews were conducted with senior managers to learn about the objectives, successes, and unique nature of the pipeline.
A Case Study about Spillover effects of FDI on innovation in China
Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) can benefit innovation activity in the host country via spillover channels such as reverse engineering, skilled labor turnovers, demonstration effects, and supplier customer relationships. Using provincial data from 1995 to 2000, we find positive effects of FDI on the number of domestic patent applications in China. This finding is robust under both pooled timeseries and cross-section data estimation and panel data analysis and for different types of patentapplications (invention, utility model, and external design). The spillover effect is the strongest for minor innovation such as external design patent, highlighting a ‘‘demonstration effect’’ of FDI.
Introduction: One of the primary motivations for developing countries to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) is to obtain advanced technology from developed countries and then base on this to establish domestic innovation capability. Under its ‘‘market for technology’’ policy, China has been the largest recipient of FDI among the developing countries in the 1990s. Are there significant spillover effects from inward FDI on R&D activity by the domestic firms? Or is it that China has been simply importing technologies without developing the ability to innovate on its own? This paper examines the extent to which inward FDI to China has affected innovation activities by Chinese firms.
Case Study about Innovative State and Local Planning For Coordinated Transportation
Executive Summary: Congress has directed the Secretaries of the Departments of Transportation (U.S. DOT) and Health and Human Services (U.S. DHHS) to work together to develop guidelines for state and local planning agencies to achieve transportation coordination. The departments formed the U.S. DOT/U.S. DHHS Transportation Planning Workgroup to address those guidelines.
In support of this process, the U.S. DOT’s Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center), working with the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA) Office of Planning, undertook this study of “Innovative State and Local Planning for Coordinated Transportation.” The study examines seven specific planning strategies that can be used as part of a flexible regional planning process for coordinating transportation services of health and human service and transit agencies. The DOT/DHHS Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility has also authored “Planning Guidelines for Coordinated State and Local Specialized Transportation Services,” which complements this report and is cross-referenced.
We changed from a vertically structured organisation that I just talked about to a more horizontal structure to provide greater functional specialisation and economies of scale. Starting on the left hand side of the diagram, we have the Economic Statistics Data Centre which undertakes all the data collection activities, all the front end processing activities and so forth. There is only a single data centre whereas there are multiple Business Statistic Centres (BSCs), shown in the middle part of the diagram.
They are based around groups of similar business collections. For example we have one Business Statistic Centre (BSC) for all our sub-annual business collections, we have another BSC for all our agriculture collections. The third type of organisational unit is the National Statistic Centres (NSCs). There are multiple National Statistic Centres and they are based on particular statistics themes.
So we have a labour NSC, for example, and its role is to get away from being solely based on internally focused labour collection based activity that it was responsible for to having a much greater alignment with the users and producers of labour statistics and to take an interest in all data sources that could be used for labour statistics. Click here to read more…
Strategic Technology Management: Development in Innovative Building Products
Abstract: National and international competition demands that Australian organisations become more competent at making the strategic technological decisions that impact their future in the international business economy. A new subject unit, Management of Technology is now offered in the popular Master of Project Management and Master of Business Administration programs at the Queensland University of Technology. This cross-disciplinary subject provides students with a theoretical foundation and practical tools to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of technically-oriented organisations.
Introduction: Strategic management of technology is an emerging field of cross-disciplinary study integrating engineering, science and management principles. It focuses on the strategic process of identifying, choosing, and implementing the most effective means of attaining compatibility between internal skills and resources of an organisation and its competitive, economic and social environment. More effective management of technology is crucial to the survival of organisations in today’s changing world. National and international competition demands that Australian organisations become more competent in making the strategic technological decisions that impact their future and this nation’s prosperity in the international economy..
Green Screen Productions Ltd (GSPL), based in Bubwith, near Selby is a production and production services company that has a large green screen facility. Film producers and GSPL Managing Directors Alan Latham and Thomas Mattinson established the company in 2008 to make productions on a green screen background and produce The Knife That Killed Me. The film is based on the award-winning novel, of the same name, by Antony McGowan about the tragic story of a boy from Leeds who spirals into knife-crime…
Click here to read more on Green Screen Productions Ltd