Study about Impression Management Perspective on Job Design: Corporate Directors
Introduction: Although job design has long been a central topic in the academic literature on organizations, theoretical perspectives on job design are rooted primarily in organizational psychology, and have only recently begun to draw from sociological theory. Moreover, extant sociological perspectives have focused largely on cross-cultural differences in the perception of job characteristics and the effect of social structure on job design.
While this literature has yielded important insights by examining how features of the macro-social context could inﬂuence job design, it has given little consideration to how individual agency or sociopolitical factors could moderate these effects. In this essay, I suggest one possible approach to developing a sociopolitical perspective on job design. In particular, I suggest how job design may be the subject of impression management, and illustrate this idea in the context of a speciﬁc corporate role that has received little attention in the job design literature, namely the role of corporate director. Keep reading…
This paper examines from various angles the complex relationship between intellectual-property rights and technological innovation. Part I summarizes the principal economic theories concerning how intellectual-property systems can stimulate or impede technological progress. Part II discusses the extent to which those theories find support in the histories in the United States of four technology-intensive industries: pharmaceutical products; biotechnology; aviation; and computer software. The Conclusion attempts to extract from those four historical case studies some generalizations concerning when and how intellectual-property rights might sensibly be employed to foster innovation.
We begin with some familiar generalizations: Technological innovations belong to the category of objects and services that economists refer to as “public goods.” The distinctive characteristics of public goods are that they can be replicated easily and that they are “nonrivalrous” – in other works, enjoyment of them by one person does not prevent enjoyment of them by other persons. Those characteristics in combination create a danger that the pace of technological innovation will fall below socially optimal levels. Why? Because potential innovators will know that, once they reveal their breakthroughs to the world, other people will be able to take advantage of them for free. Keep reading..
Study about SMEs and Intellectual Property in Switzerland
Executive Summary:~ Today more than 90 percent of Swiss companies are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Their ability to innovate and to sell services or products is crucial to the Swiss economy. Little is, however, known about how these Swiss SMEs protect their intellectual property (IP). This report explores this question, providing analysis and insight into the management of intellectual property in Swiss SMEs. The report is the result of a study carried out in collaboration with both, the Institute of Technology Management of the University of St.Gallen (HSG) and the Chair for Technology and Innovation Management of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH). The study was commissioned by the Federal Institute of Intellectual Property (IPI).
In order to improve and motivate our knowledge and understanding of SMEs’ behaviour and perceptions towards the protection of intellectual property, the research team began by conducting a literature review to compile what is known on the issue thus far. Several European studies have revealed that the management of intellectual property is handled differently in SMEs when compared to large corporations. According to these studies SMEs seem to heavily rely upon factual protection methods such as lead time advantages or secrecy. Furthermore, multiple studies address financial issues, which ultimately have an impact on an SMEs’ IP protection decisions. keep reading..
A Study about Intellectual Property Information: Questel-Orbit
Abstract: This study presents a detailed description and analysis of an information-industry company: the online-host QuestelOrbit. It is a special provider of intellectual property information services and holds a leading position in the ﬁelds of patent as well as trademark information. We are going to outline the company’s history originating from the two formerly separate systems Orbit and Télésystèmes Questel. We describe the company’s present structure, its clients and content supply, with a special focus on the retrieval systems of patent information as well as trademark information. Furthermore, we are going to discuss the market situation of these information products particularly in regard to aspects such as competitive position, cooperating partners, pricing policy and critical success factors. Finally, we present a SWOT analysis, an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
The historiography of Questel-Orbit can be seen as divided into two lines, the one of Orbit dating from the early times of information suppliers and the other of Questel since the late 1970s, both systems merging in 1994 ﬁrst as a company and in 1998 also as a system. The history of Orbit reaches as far back as 1962. The company SDC (System Development Corporation) developed the retrieval system CIRC (Centralized Information Retrieval and Control) during the 1960s. Several test runs of this system were conducted under the code name COLEX (CIRC On-Line Experiments). COLEX was the immediate predecessor of Orbit. The leading developer of COLEX and hence Orbit was Carlos Cuadra, who became well-known for his commitment to SDC and above all for the “Annual Reviews of Information Science and Technology” edited by him, for the “Cuadra Directory of Online Databases” as well as for his software STAR. The name Orbit can be traced as far back as 1967, originally standing for “OnLine-Retrieval of Bibliographic Informatio n Time-shared”. Keep reading on Intellectual Property Information
Study about Intellectual Property Rights For Traditional Healers: Indian Perception
Abstract: The patents and intellectual property rights (IPRs) associated with the development of new crops and other products are often critical to trade. Yet there is no unified international framework for a fair IPR regime in genetic resources. At this multi-faceted interface, complex ethical questions arise. This article provides an overview and discussion of key issues, dilemmas and challenges. It points to possible modifications and at ways to devise new forms of intellectual property ownership that may better suit the needs of those who seek to protect traditional medicine.
Traditional Medicine & IPR: World Health Organization (WHO) defines ‘Traditional Medicine’ as “The sum total of all knowledge and practices, whether explicable or not, used in diagnosis, prevention and elimination of physical mental or social imbalance and relying exclusively on practical experience and observation handed down from generation to generation, whether verbally or in writing”. What makes Traditional medicine a special case study is the fact that usually it is passed among community members through verbal communication, which they are practicing since centuries. This renders it unsuitable for protection under modern framework where everything is based on documentation and is applied to all countries uniformly. Keep reading onTraditional Healers
A Studies about Intellectual Property and Human Development Operationally Relevant
Abstract: Public Interest Intellectual Property Advisors (PIIPA) is a leading global network of pro bono attorneys, academics and practitioners in 49 countries providing professional services and capacity-building programs for developing countries. It has just released a book titled “Intellectual Property and Human Development”, examining the social impact of IP laws relating to health, food security, education, preservation of traditional knowledge, new technologies, and contemporary challenges in promoting the arts.
The ability to generate ideas, innovate and create is inherent in each one of us. These are resources that every country possesses and it is the IP system, which gives them value, allowing them to be transformed into viable, tradable assets. Through astute use of the IP system to harness their creative resources, the economic fortunes of countries no longer depend on physical factors such asnatural resource endowments and geographical location. Indeed, in the era of knowledge-based economies, knowledge, information and ideas are the prime economic drivers and through use of the IP system it is possible to convert these ubiquitous intangible assets into concrete economic gain. Keep reading…
This page contains a series of case studies about the administrative, policy, and technical development of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) that were designated subsequent to the 1990 Census. Just as the 1990 Census resulted in the designation of new urbanized areas (UZAs), which prompted the need to establish MPOs, new UZAs were defined by the 2000 Census.
These new UZAs, in turn, need to form either a new free-standing MPO, or affiliate with an existing MPO if one is adjacent. The case studies were prepared to assist local and state officials who are in the process of addressing newly designated urbanized areas. Keep reading…
A Study about Oakland Pedestrian Master Plan and Space Syntax Model
Context and Background:~ A safe and accessible street network for all ages and all abilities is a key component to creating a livable community. People need to feel safe, both from traffic accidents or hazards, and also from crime. Well designed streets can improve the safety of a neighborhood in both areas. An environment in which people are comfortable using the streets helps build community, prevent crime by adding “eyes on the street”, and facilitates a lively atmosphere.
Designing streets and intersections that are accessible to all ages and ability levels, such as the elderly, children, and people with disabilities, ensures safety, opportunities for physical activity, and a pleasant pedestrian experience for everyone. The vision of the Pedestrian Master Plan is to promote a pedestrian-friendly environment where public spaces, including streets and off-street paths, offer a level of convenience, safety and attractiveness to the pedestrian that will encourage and reward the choice to walk. Keep reading…
Study about Vygotskian Approach In American Early Childhood And Primary Classrooms: Tools Of The Mind
The authors are responsible for the choice and presentation of the facts contained in this publication and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO:IBE and do not commit the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO or UNICEF concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Introduction:~ The Tools of the Mind project began as a search for tools to support the cognitive development of young children. We ended up focusing on the development of a number of teaching tools to scaffold early learning and a unique method of training teachers in how to use these tools. On the basis of the Vygotskian approach, we created a series of tools or strategies to support the development of early literacy, including meta-cognitive and meta-linguistic skills as well as other foundational literacy skills. The results of an empirical evaluation of the project revealed that the strategies had a positive effect on literacy achievement in young children. Keep reading…
Study report about Mapping Older People Information Pathways to Public Services
Introduction:~ If older people are to age well, remain living independent lives and participating in their community, not only do they require adequate public services, but also they must be enabled to make informed decisions and access the services that are most appropriate to their requirements. Quality information provision and the ability of older people to act on it, has been shown to be critical for maintaining independence and a good quality of life in later life.
Sykes et al. (2008) highlighted an important relationship between access to information and access to services; and between access to services and quality of life for older people. Providing accurate public service information efficiently will ensure that older people are supported to make choices, take decisions, secure entitlements, contribute to their community and engage fully in society. Keep reading…