Case Studies about the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy
Executive Summary: The North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, examined 10 state financial-incentive programs in six states using a case-study approach in order to clarify the key factors—both internal and external tothe program—that influence their effectiveness at stimulating deployment of renewable energy technologies. While existing information resources such as the National Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.org) have documented whatincentive programs are available, the effectiveness of such programs is not well understood. Understanding the impact of current financial incentives on the deployment of renewables and the factors that influence their effectiveness is critical to a variety of stakeholders, particularly in states considering new incentives or interested in improving or discarding existing ones.
Case studies on the experience and effectiveness of the selected programs were developed by conducting personal and telephone interviews with incentive-program administrators, department of revenue and other state officials, equipment distributors and installers, and representatives from advocacy groups and renewable energy associations. Program documents, including incentive applications and program-use data, and other relevant reports were also reviewed. Keep reading…
The Responsible Investment (RI) industry is a continually growing and changing field that encompasses institutional investors, asset managers and financial service providers. Since the launch of the UN Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) in 2006, a number of innovations, initiatives and events have moved the industry significantly forward. The Principles now represent more than 800 signatories and over $20 trillion in assets under management.
The RI field has made progress on many fronts: tools for accessing information about environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) issues are increasingly available, and publicly available data around corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability practices is continually expanding; institutional investment strategies focusing on ESG-themed investments or integrating ESG factors into the investment decision-making process are common across many traditional and alternative asset lasses; and, finally, research into the relationship between financial performance and ESG factors, both academic and applied, continues to improve in quantity and quality. Keep reading…
Case Studies about Principles for Investors in Inclusive Finance
Inclusive finance focuses on expanding access to financial services and products to poor and vulnerable populations, micro- and small enterprises, and those otherwise excluded from affordable and responsible financial products and services. This encompasses a wide range of financial services including savings, credit, insurance, remittances and payments. Investors approach investment in inclusive finance with different motivations.
Some are engaged because they actively seek to alleviate poverty and see the provision of financial services as a tool to do so. Some seek to be a responsible investor because they recognise that issues such as over-indebtedness are material when assessing financial risks and returns. Whatever the motivation, there is a variety of approaches to being a responsible investor. Keep reading…
Executive summary:~ Over the last five years, the financing of civil society organisations in the United Kingdom has become more sophisticated. In particular, the social investment market which supplies capital to these organisations has developed into a prototype market. However, as with any emerging market, there is a lack of clarity among the participants about the frameworks and parameters, even purpose, of the market place. In recent months, Venturesome has seen a growing number of additional voices calling for significant steps to be taken to build a strong social investment market.
This welcome advocacy appears, however, to be accompanied by confusion regarding the different models of civil society organisations, their social impact and expected financial returns1. Clarity is needed. These organisational models have varying financial needs. A supply of capital, comprising a range of financial instruments, is required across this broad spectrum of demand. Keep reading…
A Study about Career Development and Staff Motivation in the Banking Industry: Bank of Uganda
Abstract:~ Lack of career advancement after training in Bank of Uganda is an area of great interest and concern. The lack of career advancement affects motivation and performance. However, how training influences motivation is not well researched in BoU.The objectives of this study were to assess career advancement after training, identify constraints to career advancement, assess the level of motivation among trained personnel, establish strategies to minimize constraints to career advancement and assess the effect of career advancement on motivation.
Background:~ Career development and staff motivation are key strategic considerations for all organizations regardless of size, sector, market or profile. The development of the capacity and capability of the organization‟s managers has a fundamental impact on efficiency, effectiveness, morale and profitability of an organization. High performing organizations increasingly pay close attention to the validity of their recruitment practices and are becoming equally vigilant about developing their employees in order to ensure they achieve optimum performance both in the present and the future. This is confirmed by Mwenebirinda (1998) who acknowledges that employee performance can be enhanced by training that addresses identified weaknesses. Keep reading…
A Study about Private Returns to Human Capital over Transition: Belarus
Abstract: The gradualist approach to economic transition in Belarus would contribute to form the a priori expectation that the rate of return to education is low and the earnings profile by work experience flat, like they supposedly were under central-planning. However, the first available estimates of Mincerian earnings equations based on the Belarusian Household Survey on Incomes and Expenditure suggest that the skill payoff was high in 1996, at about 10.1% per year, and stable. The return to one year of work experience is also high at 5%. This result maintains also after controlling for sample selection bias, despite a general reduction in the annual rate of return to education by about 20-30%.
Introduction: This research work provides the first available evidence on the returns to education in Belarus. Belarus is an interesting case study for the specific transition path followed. After a period of fast reforms in the early 1990s, which led to price (but not wage) liberalisation, Belarus has been, perhaps, the least reformed of the transition economies in Eastern Europe and in the CIS. In fact, though being the target of recent interventions, which led price growth to go down from three to two digits, macroeconomic stabilisation is still far from being achieved. Privatisation is progressing very slowly. Trade liberalisation is not implemented yet and the State exerts a strict control on the labour market. This situation provides a unique testing ground of many hypotheses developed in the economic transition literature about the size of the increase in the returns to education, and about the determinants of such an increase. Keep reading…
A Study about Employees of Agricultural Bank in Fars State: Organizational Reputation or Losing Organizational Power
Abstract:~ As a result of increasing world competition, the issue confronting every organization is to find methods of enhancing its own competitiveness. One of the most important competitive resources that a business can have is knowledge. This has been repetitively emphasized in the literature of knowledge management. One of the most significant aspects of knowledge management is knowledge sharing among the employees of an organization that plays a condign role in the process of knowledge management. The purpose of this research is studying of the effect of Reputation Enhancement and perceived Loss of Knowledge Power on components of reasoned actionmodel in order to study the behavior of knowledge sharing among employees of agricultural bank in Fars state (Iran).
Introduction:~ With the upcoming era of knowledge economy, knowledge and knowledge management has become vital to success in organizations. Knowledge is of paramount importance resources among others for organizations to attain their competitive advantages (Bruton et al., 2007). Knowledge is a company‟s most valuable resource because it involves intangible assets, routines, and creative processes that are hard to imitate and copy. What makes individuals share knowledge effectively with others in organizations is a main question. Knowledge sharing requires the transfer of knowledge from one person, or group to another. Organizational knowledge sharing joints employees with external knowledge sources (Garvin, 1993). Read more onOrganizational Reputation
Case Study about the Financial Cost of Wind Energy
Executive Summary: The lifetime cost of wind energy is comprised of a number of components including the investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, financing costs, and annual energy production. Accurate representation of these cost streams is critical in estimating a wind plant’s cost of energy. Some of these cost streams will vary over the life of a given project. From the outset of project development, investors in wind energy have relatively certain knowledge of the plant’s lifetime cost of wind energy. This is because a wind energy project’s installed costs and mean wind speed are known early on, and wind generation generally has low variable operation and maintenance costs, zero fuel cost, and no carbon emissions cost. Despite these inherent characteristics, there are wide variations in the cost of wind energy internationally, which is the focus of this report.
The magnitude of the unsubsidized LCOE variation has been attributed to differences in countryspecific energy production, investment cost, operations cost, and financing cost. As expected, the largest LCOE impact from country to country was the anticipated energy production component that could be due to the inherent wind regime, site selection, wind turbine design, or other factors. Market forces such as electricity market structuring or the perception of risk in a wind project investment also impacted the LCOE through large variations in both capital expenditures and financing costs. Costs attributed to the operations of a wind project ranged broadly across countries and had a sizable LCOE impact as well, though caution with the reported data for operations and maintenance costs were common. The unique factors contributing to the variations in LCOE across countries are explored further in the comparative analysis and country-specific wind energy chapters of the report. Keep reading…
A Study about Public investment and the goal of providing universal access to primary education by 2015 in Kenya
Abstract: The authors use population census data to project school enrolment for Kenya. They also employ current education sector budget and national revenue base statistics to model the sector budget and to forecast the revenue base growth required to sustain universal primary education (UPE). The 2003 ﬁscal year unit cost of education is used as the base value for computing the budget needed to fund UPE through 2015, the year by which the international community aims to achieve UPE. The authors apply econometric analysis in exploring the policy implications for the education sector budget and capacity for revenue generation that would support the budgetary growth needed.
Introduction: Since gaining independence in 1963, Kenya has spent considerable energy designing and implementing public education programmes. The guiding view thereby has been that economic development is highly dependent on the supply of skilled labour and that intensiﬁcation of growth in the education sector is crucial to improve the well-being of Kenya’s population . When African ministers of education met in Addis Ababa in 1961, they stressed that ‘‘the key to growth is the rate at which educational investment of a country progresses or regresses’’. Kenya’s programmes thus initially targeted those of its populace who had been denied access to education during the colonial period, while also focusing on training leaders and workers to replace the departing colonial personnel. Keep reading..
Case Study about the Dominican Republic: Effect of Oil Prices on Exchange Rates
Introduction: Oil Imports represent a significant fraction of the trade balance for energy-dependant economies. In the case of small open variability in oil prices is expected to have a large impact on the relative value of the currency. This relationship between the price of oil and the exchange rate has been established by the literature for oil-producing countries but not for oil-importing countries. This paper uses the case of the Dominican Republic, an energy dependent rate.
Illustrate this connection.In the case of the Dominican Republic, oil imports in 2003 represented 27% of total imports, which is up from 10% in 1994. Thus, the international price of oil is of great relevance to the Dominican economy. Because oil contracts, both in spot values and in future contracts, are denominated in US dollars, Dominican importers must sell their Pesos in the foreign exchange market in order to obtain liquidity in U.S. dollars. It follows that an increase in the world price of oil would put depreciating pressure on the Dominican Peso, whereas a decrease in the world price of oil would allow for an appreciation of the Dominican currency. keep reading..