Case Study about Calculating Credit Exposure and Credit Loss
An investigation of the estimation of credit introduction and credit misfortune of a portfolio of subsidiary transactions. The effects are contrasted with the presentation and capital holds got under the strategy suggested by the Bank for Worldwide Settlements. We demonstrate that the reproduction system gives a much wealthier set of qualified data for credit chance bosses.
Additionally, contingent upon the present presentation and the way of the transactions, the Bis strategy can neglect to elucidate potential introduction. Moreover, contingent upon the level or reasonability one requires in setting capital stores, the Bis stores might be either exorbitant or horribly inadequate. Keep reading…
Case Study about Costs and Benefits in Vocational Education and Training
This paper has been prepared as part of the analytical phase of the OECD policy review on vocational education and training (VET). Its purpose is to identify the different costs and benefits involved in the provision of initial VET and the difficulties involved in assessing them from a comparative point of view. At this stage the paper is provisional and makes no claims to present exhaustive information on a subject of such broad scope. During the course of the VET policy review, it will be updated and evidence from other elements of the project, in particular the international questionnaire incorporated. Countries are invited to provide feedback and contribute additional research and data to the evidence base.
VET systems are embedded in national economic structures which add to their heterogeneity. Flexibility or rigidity of the labour market has an impact on employee turnover and on employers’ capacity to protect themselves against free-riding and poaching. Regulations such as minimum wages as well as the impact of unions and involvement of employers are crucial in shaping the wage structure and hence training costs and benefits. In the standard theoretical model of human capital with perfect labour markets, workers capture all the returns to their general human capital and employers have no incentive to pay for general training. Keep reading…
Study about Investigating the Impacts of Distributed Generation on Transmission Expansion Cost: An Australian
Abstract:~ Distributed generation (DG) is rapidly increasing its penetration level in Australia, and is expected to play a more important role in the power industry. An important benefit of DG is its ability to defer transmission investments. In this paper, a simulation model is implemented to conduct quantitative analysis on the effect of DG on transmission investment deferral. The transmission expansion model is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with comprehensive technical constraints, such as AC power flow and system security.
Introduction:~ In its beginning period, the electricity industry consisted of generation units that are deployed dispersed and have no interconnection. The situation soon evolved, and by 1930s centralized operationbecame the dominant feature of the industry, because of the significant economies of scale and technical advantages. Nowadays, the power industry is still characterized by large-scale centralizedgeneration and an extensive transmission and distribution infrastructure. However, this centralized power generation model has been challenged in recent years. The large-scale base load generators are frequently criticized by their environmental damages. Keep reading…
Study about Cost-Benefit Analysis for Human Factors Integration
Executive Summary: It additionally gives techniques that help guarantee that the right exercises are led in the right territories, with the right measure of venture. They assist in pointing out suitable Hfi enterprises in connection to issue potential and in producing information to uphold the arranging and supporting of Hfi exercises as a major aspect of undertakings or programmes. This aide is pointed at any stakeholder concerned with needing to make judgements about what amount venture plan ought to be used on Hfi (and how), dependent upon foreseeing the potential solid require profits of such exercises rather than none.
Though the full expense profit direction gives a level of part more suited to Hfi professionals, the general methodology itself is suitable to any stakeholder in an activity arranging part. Hfi Cost-Benefit Analysis gives assistance for how to gauge requires both for potential issues and for Hfi moderation exercises. It underpins the expense defense of Hfi, to demarcate and exhibit its profits in money related terms. It recognizes how Hfi can influence general task requires, in connection to the endeavors that need to be used to attain require decreases. Keep reading…
Study about Cost-Effective and Sustainable Service
Challenge:~ As one of the UK’s largest users of direct mail as a marketing medium, Virgin Media traditionally outsourced the paper specification and procurement processes to the creative agencies, printers and mailing houses it uses to deliver key campaigns.As individual providers selected the media, there was no control or visibility over the paper procurement process. Virgin Media recognised that sourcing all of the papers required from a single supplier would enable it to better meet its three key purchasing objectives – reducing cost, maintaining quality and ensuring sustainability.
The company entered into a competitive tender process, inviting a number of suppliers to bid for the business. The brief was to deliver a solution that would enable Virgin Media to reduce its overall material spend; provide visibility over the entire procurement process, helping Virgin Media to better manage its use of media; and one which would provide them with a choice of sustainable papers, ensuring best environmental practice. Keep reading…
Study about Improved Product Design Practices: Cost Effective
Abstract: In the global marketplace today, more and more companies are looking to China for both assembly and manufacturing. Drawn in by the lure of extremely low labor rates, U.S. companies are eager to rapidlymove manufacturing and assembly offshore. These companies seem very interested in reducing manufacturing costs, but many of them rarely take the time to understand the significant potential for cost savings during the design phase of their products. Why is this so? Product development methodologies such as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (see Appendix) have shown repeatedly over the years that most of the cost of a product is fixed during design. The best time to find cost reductions, then, is during the design stage, not during manufacturing.The question has now become: Is sending a product design overseas for manufacture really the cost-effective solution, or would U.S. companies benefit from taking the time to redesign products and keep manufacturing here?
Introduction: The headline reads “Forrester Updates Offshore Job Numbers.” In its research report, Forrester finds that 3.3 million jobs will leave the U.S. by 2015 for foreign service companies. These jobs are in software development and business process outsourcing (BPO). But job losses have been occurring for decades in the manufacturing sector. In the 1960s and 70s the reason was cheap labor and automation in Japan. During the 1980s, manufacturing shifted to cheap labor in Mexico, and now in 2004 it is shifting to cheap labor in Asia, specifically China. Keep reading…
Study about Cost Effectiveness Assessment for Liquid Forging Process
Abstract: Liquid forging is an innovative hybrid manufacturing process to produce metal components in near-net shapes with high dimensional accuracy and good mechanical properties, more attractively, at lower manufacturing cost. To better understand the cost effectiveness of the liquid forging process and the economic consequences of the technical choices on the process/product parameters, this study was conducted. A manufacturing process based cost assessment method was developed. The method was applied to three case studies for estimation of the production cost and for assessment of cost effectiveness of liquid forging process.
Background: The cost effectiveness of liquid forging (LF) has been generally recognised as an attraction to potential customers. However, the understanding of its cost behaviours and its cost breakdown structures is still limited at present. What are the key cost drivers of the LF process? How part and process parameters influence the unit costs of liquid forged parts? What is the cost reduction potential possibly brought by the technical choices on process operating conditions? These questions drive our efforts in cost modelling and cost assessment for the liquid forging process. Keep reading…
Introduction: The findings from the LARC3 research programme come at a particularly challenging time for local authorities and their partners. The Coalition Government has set a new policy and financial context. Continuing to improve outcomes for all children and young people (particularly those from the poorest families) is to be achieved with a significantly reduced funding base across the public sector. The government has sought to promote investment in systematic preventative and early intervention services as a means of breaking the cycle of poverty and underachievement in key groups and communities, whilst making long-term savings in public expenditure.
Background: The Local Authority Research Consortium (LARC) is a collaboration of local authorities (LAs) supported by national agencies jointly carrying out research aimed at improving integrated working in Children‟s Services. It encourages and assists participating LAs to be reflective, to tell their own story, and to learn from others, thereby contributing to a culture of sector-led improvement and „knowledge creation‟. Our research findings contribute to active policy development, shaping and influencing national and local developments, Keep reading..
Study about Activity based costing in China: Xu Ji Electric Co. Ltd
Executive Summary: This project investigated the implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) at Xu Ji Electric Co. Ltd (Xu Ji), a large Chinese manufacturing company. Xu Ji is a state-owned enterprise (SOE), turned public limited company (PLC). The company piloted ABC implementation in one of its main production divisions in December 2001, when ABC concepts were at a theoretical level in China (Liu and Pan, 2007).
Two more attempts to extend the use of ABC in one of its subsidiaries and sales functions took place in 2005 and 2008. Major events took place during the latter research endeavour, including two major acquisitions – first by a pension fund and later by the national grid and recent decision to implement an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. These events provided a unique opportunity to unveil factors pertinent to organisational decisions towards information system implementation, to extract ‘real-life’ interactions between personnel at various organisational hierarchies; and to evaluate complex relationships between changes, organisational and individual learning. Keep reading…
Despite existing life cycle costing (LCC) method descriptions and practicable suggestions for conducting LCC analyses, no systematic analyses on actual implementations of LCC methods exist. This article reviews reports on LCC applications to provide an overview of LCC uses and implementation feasibility.
Introduction:~ “The life cycle cost of an item is the sum of all funds expended in support of the item from its conception and fabrication through its operation to the end of its useful life” (White and Ostwald, 1976). Such life cycle costs of a product can be many times the initial purchase or investment costs (Woodward, 1997), and according to several sources 70-90 % of these total life cycle costs become defined already in the design phase (Bescherer, 2005; Dowlatshahi, 1992; Lindholm and Suomala, 2005). Yet initial investment costs are most often used as the primary and sometimes the only criteria in purchase decision (Lindholm and Suomala, 2004; Woodward, 1997). Keep reading..