A Studies about Multiple Impacts of Droughts and Assessment of Drought Policy in Major Drought Prone States in India
Introduction: Drought is one of the most frequently occurring national disasters in India. With its increased frequency and expanded coverage in the recent years, about one third of the country is either drought prone or under desert areas. These areas are lagging behind in agriculture and also in overall economic growth. They experience wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production and incomes and have a relatively high incidence of poverty. The poor in these regions are highly vulnerable to a variety of risks due to their low and fluctuating incomes, high indebtedness and low human development.
Helping the poor to come out of vulnerability and poverty and integrating the drought prone areas into the mainstream of development is a serious challenge faced by policy makers at present. Droughts and famines have received attention of rulers in India right from the 13th and 14th century. Muhammad Tughlakh was perhaps the first Sultan to take systematic steps to alleviate efforts of droughts by distributing grains to drought affected people in Delhi in 1343 AD (Loveday 1985). This approach was followed and improved upon by Mughals and many other kings and rulers later on. During the British period also efforts were made to provide relief to droughts / famine affected people by organizing relief works and food distribution, distribution of fodder, loans to farmers to start cultivation in the next season etc. Keep reading..
A Studies about Livelihood Options Assets Creation out of Special Component Plan (SCP)
Executive Summary: Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are the disadvantaged sections of the society due to socio-economic exploitation and isolation since a long time. Scheduled Castes (SCs) constitute about 166.6 million representing 16.23% of the total population of India (2001 Census). Scheduled Castes (SCs), since long, have been relegated to low income generating occupations, inferior trades, unhygienic environment and menial occupations. Though un-touchability has been abolished by the Constitution, caste rigidities continues to confine many SC workers in low occupations. The main concentration in Uttar Pradesh (35.1 million), West Bengal (18.4 million), Tamil Nadu (11.8 million), Andhra Pradesh (12.3 million) and Bihar (11.3 million). SCs are rural in their habitation (78%) and majority of them are agricultural labourers (46%) with only 20% of them are cultivators. The important development indicators of literacy (54.7%), IMR (83%), rural poverty (36%), urban poverty (38%) show large disparity with the general population
The population of Scheduled Tribes (STs) is 84.3 million (2001 Census) constituting 8.2% of the total population of the country. STs have their own distinctive culture and are geographically isolated with low socio-economic conditions. More than half of the ST population is concentrated in the five States of Madhya Pradesh (14.51%), Maharashtra (10.2%), Orissa (9.7%), Gujarat (8.9%), and Rajasthan (8.4%). Among them 91.7% of STs live in rural areas and only 8.3% live in urban areas. About 45% of STs are cultivators and 40% are engaged as agricultural labourers. The socio-economic indicators of literacy (47%), IMR (84%), rural poverty (46%), urban poverty (35%) show the disparity and low level of development among them. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Organizational Structures for Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Southern Africa
Abstract: Throughout Southern Africa there has been a move to decentralize natural resource management (NRM). Decentralization has taken many forms, resulting in different organizational structures for NRM. Fourteen case studies from eight countries can be classed into four types, depending on the key organizations for NRM: (1) districtlevel organizations; (2) village organizations supported by sectoral departments (e.g. Village Forest Committees); (3) organizations or authorities outside the state hierarchy (e.g. traditional authority, residents’ associations), and (4) corporate organizations at the village level (e.g. Trusts, conservancies, property associations). Attitudes towards district-level schemes amongst local people are generally negative. The greater the authority village organizations receive the more likely they are to succeed. In the cases with corporate organizations, local residents have received user or proprietary rights over resources. Such cases reflect the best chances of community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) being successful.
Introduction: In recent years, coinciding with the mainstreaming of participatory approaches in development theory and practice, there has been a policy shift to advocate that local resource users play a more active role in the management of natural resources. There has been considerable progress in decentralizing authority over forests from the state to local communities in Asia, and there are now numerous examples within Africa. Within the wildlife sector there has been considerable activity in the last decade, especially in southern Africa, where almost all countries have programs to allow communities to manage and benefit from wildlife. In Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia, and Namibia, a wildlife management focus has provided the major initiative for CBNRM. In South Africa, land restitution has been the major driving force for more equitable and participatory forms of natural resource management. Keep reading…
Case Study about Engaging with Community-based Organizations
Background: This chapter addresses the question of how to strengthen community-based organizations (CBOs), which should be – and in theory are – at the centre of most development efforts, in order to take their rightful place in the development process. It is built on the assumption that the development of organizational capacity would be crucial in order to reach that aim. There is a long, well documented history of proven community development principles and practices to draw on which point to the value of a process-oriented approach for reaching this outcome. Yet this type of orientation has not been widely applied. Instead capacity development for CBOs tends to be about short-term (skills) training for individuals and ‘packages’ offered in various fields by different non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and donors.
This contribution draws on experience of one type of contemporary process approach, namely the implementation of organizational development (OD) processes within three case CBOs. It also brings experiences from work with the South African NGO, Community Connections, as well as findings from PhD research in the townships of Khayelitsha, Mbekweni and Valhalla Park, Cape Town (Yachkaschi, 2008). The aim of the research was to analyse the current environment and the situation in which CBOs find themselves. This understanding allowed a practical evaluation of whether and how OD can provide a suitable way to build their capacity towards becoming independent and sustainable organizations; put another way, for CBOs to evolve as strong civil society organizations that actively participate in the development of their communities and are seen as valuable partners. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Selected CBOs in District Swat: Community Based Organizations
Abstract: The study was conducted in Swat district during 2008 to assess the role of Community Based Organizations(CBOs) in the rural community development of the district. For the analysis, secondary data was used collected from five CBOs of tehsil Kabal (Swat). The results indicated that Shahbaz Welfare Society (Akhunkalay) provided vaccination to 38 patients free of cost, and 111 patients on concession. Al-Khidmat Welfare Organization (trained 160 tailors; 240 farmers; and 56 in handicrafts manufacturing.
Al-Khair Welfre Society (Totano Bandai) provided student scholarships for 10, books purchase for 27,school uniform for 35 students, free tuition to 450 students and free school admission to ten. Rokhana Sema (Aligrama) provided training to 17 female primary school teachers, while 9 and 6 persons were given TBA and LHVs/FMTs training respectively. Seeds at subsidized rates were provided to 75 farmers and another 45 farmers weretrained. Youth Organization (Galoch) constructed 4waiting rooms on bus stops, constructed 2 tube wells and 22cemented streets. The results show that CBOs are making a difference in lives of the people in the sample area. More resources needs to be made available to enable CBOs further their activities for the development of rural communitiess. Keep reading…
Introduction: In Egypt, an estimated 2 to 2.5 million children between the ages of 6-15 are working as street vendors, domestic workers, agricultural labourers, factory workers, laundry workers and helpers for mechanics (ECWR, 2008, U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs), with the vast majority (83%) working in rural areas (National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, 2004 as cited by Social Research Center, 2007; Gazaleh, Bulbul, Hewala & Najim, 2004). Overall, more boys than girls in Egypt are working but it is not clear whether domestic work is sufficiently counted in child labour estimates as child domestic workers are explicitly excluded from Egypt’s child labour laws and so remain unaknowledged (Gazaleh, Bulbul, Hewala & Najim, 2004). Child domestic labour, like other forms of child labour, is a common household strategy that is often used to reduce costs and/or to increase income (ILO, 2009; Camacho, 1999; Bhat, 2005). On the one hand, it may offer opportunities for childre n that may not be available in their own households.
On the other hand, it may put thousands of children under harsh working conditions. In Egypt, the problem of child labour has been addressed in the 2003 Labour Law. The 2003 Labour Law or Act 12 regulates the working conditions of children, such as limits on working hours and age limits (Azer et al., 2007; Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights, July 8, 2008). Despite the fact that domestic work has been identified as one of the worst forms of child labour in Egypt (ILAB, 2007) and Act 12 prohibits children under 17 from working in hazardous conditions, child domestic workers are deliberately excluded from the 2003 Egyptian labour law through Article 4 of Act 12. This article is concerned with the scope of the legislation. Keep reading…
Case Study about Organized Health Care Delivery System
Kaiser Permanente comprising the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, and Permanente Medical Groups in eight regions is the largest nonprofit integrated health care delivery system in the United States. The successful evolution of this organizational structure in a competitive marketplace has required a close partnership between managers and physicians supported by a culture of physician group accountability for quality and efficiency. An overarching agenda for achieving excellence focuses on high-impact health conditions, provides goal-oriented tools to analyze population data, proactively identifies patients in need of intervention, supports systematic process improvements, and promotes collaboration between patients and professionals to improve health. Central to this effort is KP HealthConnect, a comprehensive health information system that integrates an electronic health record with the tools to support physicians in delivering evidence-based medicine, coupled with a robust online patient portal that enhances members’ access to and involvement in their care.
Organizational Background: Since its inception in 1945, Kaiser Permanente has become the largest not-for-profit, integrated health care delivery system in the United States, serving 8.6 million members in eight regions: Northern and Southern California, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, the Mid-Atlantic States, Ohio, and the Northwest (Exhibit 3). About threequarters of the members are in California, the organization’s birthplace. Its mission is to “provide affordable, high-quality health care services to improve the health of our members and the communities we serve.”The Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program comprises three separate yet interdependent entities: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan (KFHP), Kaiser Foundation Hospitals (KFH), and Permanente Medical Groups in each region. keep reading…
Study report for Voting Behavior and Political Participation in Zhejiang
Abstract: Two existing models are used to conceptualize the constrained and limited participation in the communist system. The mobilization model suggests that participation was so mobilized by the party/state that it was largely meaningless, while the disengagement model supports the idea that many communist citizens adopted non-participatory behaviors such as non-voting as a means of protest. This paper attempts to demonstrate the importance of a third model – the emergent democratic culture model. The survey results show that the participation index is in proportion to the number of elections in which a villager is involved; and a growing number of voters in Zhejiang are developing citizen-initiated participation, with rights consciousness.
This paper studies voter behavior and villager participation and makes a contribution to the literature on political participation in rural China in the following ways. First, it examines the advantages and disadvantages of the methodological strategies that have been used to study the political participation of villagers, and outlines my methodological strategy for measuring this participation. Second, it presents research ﬁndings on the political participation of villagers in Zhejiang, examines the participatory activities of villagers, and investigates the voting behavior and participation of villagers in the election process. Third, it considers the key determinants of political participation. read more in Voting Behavior
A Case Study about Carrot and Stick: Coercive Use of Air Power
Abstract: The threat and application of force is an integral part of diplomacy. Commonly referred to as coercion, force is employed through counter-civilian or counter-military strategies. Counter-civilian strategies threaten force or apply actual force to civilian infrastructure or interests to overwhelm the population’s will to resist. Counter-military strategies, in contrast, target the adversary’s military capacity to resist. Decapitation strategies target the adversary’s leadership and their interests, and comprise elements of counter-civilian and counter-military coercion. Doctrinally, coercion occupies the uncertain middle ground between military operations other than war (MOOTW) and war. According to Joint Publication 1: Joint Warfare of the Armed Forces of the United States, a MOOTW requires only a raid or a show of force to protect important interests. A war, by contrast, doctrinally requires the application of overwhelming brute force in defense of vital national interests.
Paper identifies four main coercive strategies, punishment, risk, denial, and decapitation. Punishment and risk rely on inflicting pain and suffering on civilians in order to overwhelm their interests and force the government to concede, or to cause the population to rally insisting on concession. Possible targets would include electric power grids, oil refineries, water and sewer systems, and domestic transportation. A risk strategy, specifically, would rely upon imposing the risk of future damage to the adversary’s critical infrastructure. With this strategy, damage must occur slowly and the coercer must be careful not ‘to kill the hostage’. In other words, the coercer must ensure that the adversary has something left to preserve or there will be no incentive to concede. Punishment and risk, or counter-civilian strategies as Pape refers to them, only work when core values are not at stake. read more in Carrot and Stick
A Study about Coercive Power Consolidation: Iranian Revolution
Abstract : The Author examines the Khomeini Regime’s process of power consolidation before, during and after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Using this event as a case study in coercive power consolidation, the author determines the Khomeini Regime’s co-optation and incorporation (through coercion and persuasion) of the Iranian military was the first and crucial step in this process. He further examines the Islamic Republic of Iran’s use of the military to then consolidate its power by suppressing ethnic minorities, political opposition groups, and religious minorities.
Throughout the thesis, the Khomeini Regime’s practice of demonizing its enemies will be examine as a principal component of the power consolidation process. The major conclusion of this study is that the essence of regime legitimization was grounded in the incorporation of the army as a necessary element of power. The regime then used the army to suppress those elements of society that it deemed threatening or unnecessary. Iran, Iranian revolution, Islam, Middle East, Middle Eastern politics, Middle Eastern history, Political violence. Read more in Coercive Power Consolidation