A Study report about Children with Special Educational Needs
Introduction:~ All children, including children with special educational needs, have a right to an education which is appropriate to their needs. The aims of education for pupils with special educational needs are the same as apply to all children. Education should be about enabling all children, in line with their abilities, to live full and independent lives so that they can contribute to their communities, cooperate with other people and continue to learn throughout their lives. Education is about supporting children to develop in all aspects of their lives – spiritual, moral, cognitive, emotional, imaginative, aesthetic, social and physical.This booklet is written for parents to answer key questions they may have about special education, both generally and as it relates to their child. The word ‘parent’ in this document should also be taken to include guardians of children.
Children with special educational needs are children first and have much in common with other children of the same age. There are many aspects to a child’s development that make up the whole child, including – personality, the ability to communicate (verbal and non-verbal), resilience and strength, the ability to appreciate and enjoy life and the desire to learn. Each child has individual strengths, personality and experiences so particular disabilities will impact differently on individual children. A child’s special educational need should not define the whole child. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Sector-Wide Approaches and Decentralisation: Uganda
Executive Summary:~ Uganda has chosen to implement a far-reaching and ambitious programme of decentralisation. The 1997 Local Government Act marked an important step in launching the process, acknowledging the provisions of the 1995 Constitution, which places decentralisation at the core of the country’s framework of governance. The process faces many challenges. While considerable progress has been made since 1997, advocates of decentralisation are increasingly concerned that the process is stalling and even being reversed. Two of the more acute challenges facing decentralisation are working out an appropriate system of inter-governmental fiscal relations, and developing credible leadership and technical competence at the local level. A more fundamental challenge is demonstrating the value decentralisation brings to the fight against poverty.
In the same year that Government passed the Local Government Act, it launched the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP); the most important policy document of the Government providing the focus and rationale of its development strategy. The PEAP has paved the way for Uganda to access debt-relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative and has also provided the content of the country’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Uganda’s relative success in achieving macroeconomic stability, and its “home-grown” poverty reduction strategy, have given donors confidence to switch from project funding modalities to forms of sector and budget support, including Sector Wide Approaches. The Poverty Action Fund (PAF) set up in 1998 channels resources from HIPC and other debtrelief funds, donor budget support and the Government’s own resources, to the PEAPs five priority sectors: primary education, primary health care, water and environmental sanitation, agricultural and rural development, and rural roads. Keep reading…
A Study report about Gender Equality in Sector Wide Approaches
The case studies were discussed at a consultative workshop hosted by the Netherlands in The Hague in 2001. At the workshop, academics, practioners and policy makers from donors and from partner countries discussed their experiences and presented frameworks for integrating gender into sector wide approaches. In addition to papers describing the case studies, a lengthier reference guide was prepared by the Netherlands in 2000.
Sector wide approaches to development co-operation involve donor support to the development of an entire sector in a given country. The sector wide approach is contrasted with a project-based approach in which individual donors each support a particular set of activities within the sector (for example, building schools or roads). Budget support, programme aid, sector investment programme are other terms that can be used to mean a sector wide approach. Keep reading….
DC’s point of view, it is interesting to learn what is going on in sector programmes in countries not supported by SDC in the health sector. Aid coordination via sector programmes or alternative mechanisms (e.g. PRSP) is one of the five key focus areas of the new SDC Health Policy (2003-2010). However, as all donors, SDC is still in a learning phase regarding sector programmes, and its support to sector programmes varies considerably between geographical departments2. SDC recognizes that other countries’ experiences can offer a perspective to the countries where it is helping implement a sector programme, such as in Tanzania and Mozambique, and other countries where a sector programme is under discussion, such as Rwanda.
SWAp that has received international acclaim for its design and execution. The paper seeks to understand why it is working, the critical factors for success, what did not work so well and why, and what lessons there may be for other countries. Furthermore, this paper lays the foundations for more in-depth country case studies on SWAp potential to be conducted by the Swiss Tropical Institute jointly with SDC. Read more..
Studies about stability of Centrality Measures when Networks are Sampled
Abstract: The ability to measure centrality in social networks has been a particularly useful development in social network analysis. For researchers trying to decide which centrality measure is most meaningful and valid for their research purposes, various papers have explored the conceptual foundations of centrality measures. Less well documented is the empirical performance of centrality measures under different research scenarios or constraints. This study uses bootstrap sampling procedures to determine how sampling affects the stability of 11 different network centrality measures.
Introduction: The ability to measure centrality in social networks has been a particularly useful development in social network analysis. Measures of centrality describe actors’ positions in a network relative to others and in relation to the complete network. Several centrality measures have been created to measure which individuals in a network possess inﬂuential and prestigious roles (Freeman, 1979; Bonacich, 1972, 1987; Scott, 2000; Wasserman and Faust, 1994). Additional measures have been developed to indicate the social inﬂuence of an individual on the other individuals in his or her network (Friedkin, 1991). Keep reading….
Introduction:~ Situational Crime Prevention departs radically from most criminology in its orientation. Proceeding from an analysis of the circumstances giving rise to specific kinds of crime, it introduces discrete managerial and environmental change to reduce the opportunity for those crimes to occur. Thus it is focused on the settings for crime, rather than upon those committing criminal acts. It seeks to forestall the occurrence of crime, rather than to detect and sanction offenders.
It seeks not to eliminate criminal or delinquent tendencies through improvement of society or its institutions, but merely to make criminal action less attractive to offenders. Central to this enterprise is not the criminal justice system, but a host of public and private organizations and agencies — schools, hospitals, transit systems, shops and malls, manufacturing businesses and phone companies, local parks and entertainment facilities, pubs and parking lots — whose products, services and operations spawn opportunities for a vast range o f different crimes. Keep reading…
In my preceding chapters I have tried, by going into the minutiae of the science of piloting, to carry the reader step by step to a comprehension of what the science consists of; and at the same time I have tried to show him that it is a very curious and wonderful science, too, and very worthy of his attention. If I have seemed to love my subject, it is no surprising thing, for I loved the profession far better than any I have followed since, and I took a measureless pride in it.
The reason is plain: a pilot, in those days, was the only unfettered and entirely independent human being that lived in the earth. Kings are but the hampered servants of parliament and people; parliaments sit in chains forged by their constituency; the editor of a newspaper cannot be independent, but must work with one hand tied behind him by party and patrons, and be content to utter only half or two-thirds of his mind; no clergyman is a free man and may speak the whole truth, regardless of his parish’s opinions; writers of all kinds are manacled servants of the public. Click here to read more…
BAE Systems works right at the cutting edge of technology to develop, deliver and support advanced defence security and aerospace systems across the world. Its success depends entirely on effective project delivery. It is the world’s second largest global defence company with major operations across five continents and with customers and partners in more than 100 countries. More than 7,000 of its 100,000 employees are professional project managers working on some 5,000 projects at any one time.This multi-billion pound business needs highly capable people using world-class processes to successfully manage and deliver complex projects to meet the exacting requirements of its customers. Click here to read more…
Inter-Organizational Knowledge Community Building: Sustaining or Overcoming Organizational Boundaries?
Abstract: Various studies focus on general networks within and between organizations, but strongly focused studies on knowledge sharing through social networks and communities within speciﬁc domains that are of critical relevance to the R & D organization are hard to ﬁnd. Therefore, the argument presented here is explored through an empirical case study on inter-organizational knowledge community building between diﬀerent research institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, a large German organization for contract research in all ﬁelds of the applied engineering sciences. Expert knowledge communication and networking processes are evaluated by a multi-level approach.
Institutionalization of knowledge transfer is studied with regard to the development of the informal contacts between the community members and the inter-organizational linkages on an aggregated level. The main focus is put on the relationships of knowledge exchange between the formal organizational boundaries and the informal interorganizational network structures. Finally, this case study aims at further supporting the adaptation of methods from social network analysis for purposes of organization and management practice. To refer this case study click here Inter Organizational Knowledge Community Building
Study report for Effect of Mindreading on Social Relations: Machiavellianism, Adult theory of Mind, Cooperation
Abstract: Theory of mind – the ability to attribute independent mental states and processes to others – plays an important role in our social lives. For one, it facilitates social cooperation, for two, it enables us to manipulate others in order to reach our own goals. In our study, we intend to analyze some basic aspects of the complex relationship between adult theory of mind and social behavior that had not been researched in depth so far. Our results show (1) a strong negative correlation between Machiavellianism and social cooperative skills; (2) a connection between the extent of cooperative tendency and the level of mindreading; and (3) a lack of signiﬁcant correlation between theory of mind and Machiavellianism. For the interpretation of the results – especially for our third ﬁnding – we used the concepts of ‘‘hot’’ and ‘‘cold’’ empathy, the lack of representation of moral emotions, as well as other cognitive explanatory models.
Introduction : Many researchers hold that the attribution of mental states evolves through a several-year-long maturing process from such cognitive precursors as mutual attention, social imitation and pretend play. Much less do we know about adult mentalizing ability and the role it plays in social relations. From the few studies available, it is worth highlighting the research of Kinderman, Dunbar, and Bentall (1998). This research revealed that individual differences in mentalizing ability are not attributable to individual variances in working memory capacity. The ﬁndings also lead to the conclusion that the cognitive skills required for understanding the mental contents of a person diﬀer from those necessary for recalling the factual events related to this person. Moreover, it seems that mindreading is restricted by strict cognitive limits; beyond a certain level of complexity the great majority of adults ﬁnd it difficult to follow what people think of one another’s mental activities. Keep reading…