Case Study about Teach Object-Oriented Programming and Design Patterns
Abstract: In order to teach object-oriented design and programming in introductory computer science it is imperative to teach objects from the very beginning of the course. The use of interacting objects is motivated by examples with an inherent complexity. We describe a case study based on a maze as an example that provides a complex framework but at the same time admits to simple pieces that students can work with early in an introductory course. This case study can be used throughout the first year not only tointroduce basic control structures, but also to introduce a number of design ideas and algorithms.
Introduction: Kristen Nygaard (2001, 2002) and others (Nevison and Wells, 2003) have asserted that object-oriented programming should be taught in the context of complex examples. We present a case study based on finding a way through a maze that demonstrates how this can be done. This case study provides material that students can work with from early in a first computer science course to problems appropriate for a second course on datastructures and even beyond. After reviewing other work in the next section, we will first describe the framework for the maze program. Wewill then describe how some basic programmingexercises on control structures appropriate to an introductory class can be developed within thisframework. Keep reading…
Digital Rights Management (DRM) is defined as a ‘systematic, technology-based process for copyright protection of digital media’. The case discusses the concept of DRM that emerged in the 1980s to prevent the illegal duplication and distribution of digital works like audio, video, literary articles, computer software, etc. The case then gives examples of companies that used DRM technologies to restrict the usage of their content. It then focuses on the debate on whether companies were justified in using DRM technologies. It also talks about some proposals suggested by analysts that would make DRM more acceptable. The case ends with a discussion on some of the latest developments in DRM. Click here to read more…
This business update discusses about Universal Music Group (UMG) suing MySpace for copyright infringement of the work of its artists. UMG also claimed damages of US$ 1,50,000 for each unauthorized music or video posted on the site. MySpace alleged that the lawsuit files was unfortunate and the fine imposed was unjust. However, analysts opined that MySpace sought protection from Digital Millenium Copyright Act, which would exempt it from copyright violation lawsuits. Click here to read more…
San Jose, California — Apple has won a major jury trial against its chief competitor Samsung today in federal court for claims of patent infringement. After deliberating over three days, a nine-member jury has just decided that Samsung infringed on six of Apple’s technology patents for smartphones and tablets. Based on this finding, the jury awarded Apple about $1 billion in damages.
According to the Los Angeles Times, “The nine-member jury accepted most of Apple’s claims that Samsung copied the look and feel of its iPhone to roll out its own line of smartphones.” Although the details are still being analyzed, the Times provides the broad outlines of the jury verdict against Samsung: According to reports from the courthouse, as of 4 p.m. Pacific the jury found that Samsung infringed on Apple’s so-called “pinch and zoom” patent, or the ability to make text on a touchscreen bigger by moving one’s fingers outward; as well as its bounce-back patent, or the way the image onscreen bounces back when it is dragged with a finger to the edge of the device.
Read more at Apple Wins Patent Infringement
Working with Business Patterns & Frameworks: For years Ikea has been using its positive and extraordinary image for the purposes of developing its employer brand. “There will hardly be another company in Germany which will be so successfully associated with the two key areas of team spirit and leadership style.”; a daring aspiration indeed for IKEA’s personnel marketing people who are working closely with trendence GmbH.
The aim of the training scheme marketing campaign is for IKEA to be perceived with such a high level of popularity among school children and sixth formers. The Azubimarketing (traineeship marketing) working group, which is comprised of members of operational and strategic marketing departments and consultants from trendence GmbH. Click here to read more…
The Sperry Corporation received patent number 4,558,302 on December 10, 1985 for its patent describing “High Speed Data Compression and Decompression Apparatus and Method.” The patent expires twenty years from the date of application, June 20, 1983.
The patent describes a compression algorithm known commonly as LZW after its inventors, Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch. (Welch alone is listed as the inventor on patent 4,558,302, though this work was derived from an earlier patent which names Lempel and Ziv as well.)
Sperry merged with Burroughs Corporation in 1986 to form the Unisys Corporation. Unisys retained all of Sperry’s patents, including LZW, which it will continue to hold until the patent’s expiration in 2003.
In the fall of 1997, Amazon.com submitted a patent application entitled “A Method and System for Placing a Purchase Order Via a Communications Network.” On September 28, 1999, two years and one week after the application was filed, Amazon was granted United States Patent Number 5,960,411. It is now known as Amazon’s “1-Click” patent. The patent describes an online system allowing customers to enter their credit card number and address information just once so that on follow up visits to the website all it takes is a single mouse-click to make a purchase from their website.
Just twenty-three days after the 1-Click Patent was issued, Amazon.com filed a lawsuit in the federal district court of Seattle against Barnesandnoble.com, a rival online bookseller and their largest competitor. Amazon’s goal was to stop Barnesandnoble from using their “Express Lane” shopping process on the grounds that it infringed upon Amazon’s patented 1-Click business method.
Patent Invalidation Procedure against Patent Right in Japan
It has been interpreted that a patent shall be construed as valid in an infringement court. Under the Japan Patent Act, a patent is valid until a trial decision of invalidation of a patent by an invalidation trial of the Japan Patent Office is made final and conclusive. Only the Japan Patent Office can invalidate a patent.
However, “an apparent reason for invalidation” is found in the patent by a patent infringement court in a patent infringement law suit, the court should decide that the patent is “unenforceable” by the reason of “abuse of patent right” in the light of equity ( the Judgment of the Supreme Court of Japan, Third Petty Bench, April 11, 2000, Heisei 10 (o) 364, in so-called “Kilby case” ).
Patent Act Article 104.3 (came into force from April 1, 2005) has made clear the “unenforceability of an invalid patent” in accordance with this Judgment of the Supreme Court.
Since the Supreme Court’s Judgment in the Kilby Case, almost alleged infringers have asserted reasons of invalidity of patent rights on the ground of abuse of right. Since Japan Patent Act Article 104.3 came into force on Apr. 1, 2005, alleged infringers have asserted unenforciability of patent rights because of lack of patentability on the ground of the Article 104.3(1). Click here to read more…
This case concerns a dispute between a US inventor and a Canadian technology company over patent infringement.
Research In Motion (NASDAQ: RIMM) is a design company founded in Canada by a very talented engineer. Started in 1984, the company became highly successful; it counted General Motors as an early customer and won an Academy Award and an Emmy Award for technological innovation in motion pictures. The company’s first generation wireless device was rolled out in 1996, a two-way pager that could be carried in a pocket.
In 1998, RIM signed contracts with Canadian and American telecom companies that allowed BlackBerry to carry voice signals. The BlackBerry was rolled out in January 1999. It was a breakthrough product that combined a phone, pager, e-mail, personal organizer, and web browser. It was small enough to hang on a belt and had a convenient little keyboard for typing messages (e.g., see Exhibit 1). The BlackBerry became a very successful product, and by 2007 had more than 8 million users.
RIM has grown over the years into a highly technology-intensive company. In the year 2000, its patent portfolio numbered only 16 issued utility patents. But by the end of 2007, the company had more than 400 utility and design patents issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). RIM maintains an aggressive patenting, licensing and technology acquisition program. To refer this case study click here BlackBerry Case
Mere payment of the renewal fee at the patent office is not sufficient to enable the maintenance of the patent. It is vital to ensure that the payment is made with the correct details to avoid either of the two scenarios:
a. Patents becoming lapse; or
b. Payments being made twice over during the same year.
The payment of annuity fee in India is to be made at the appropriate office where the patent was granted. This can be identified if the applicant has the correct application number that contains the abbreviation for the respective zonal office. Since, the Patent administration system in India has four branches at Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi, the application number being non-traceable or incorrect, acts as a hurdle for the patentee in his endeavour to make the payment for annuity. To refer this case study click herePatent Data Verification in India