A Study about Pro-Poor are Participatory Watershed Management
Summary: In recent years Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and Joint Forest Management (JFM) projects have been promoted with a view to improve service provision in the agricultural sector. Improved service provision it is presumed would enhance access of resource poor households to watershed services such as irrigation and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). This report draws on a survey and case study evidence from 28 watershed management groups in Haryana to argue that participatory watershed management projects need not necessarily safeguard the interests of poorer rural households.
We demonstrate that given a particular institutional contract as in Haryana, irrigation service provision by contractors proved to be more effective than provision by a community organization (HRMS) in ensuring that water allocation, collection of Irrigation Service Fees (ISF) and routine maintenance of irrigation infrastructure wasundertaken. Our analysis of benefit distribution eveals that wealthier landholding households benefited more from management of irrigation and forest resources when compared to relatively poorer households. Keep reading..
Abstract:~ Access, brokerage, and efficiency are all acknowledged as important sources of political influence, but are seen as conceptually distinct. Yet all of them result from the distribution of ties (patterns of association) that link together actors in networks. These ties, whether material (like financial transactions) or social (like friendship), determine an actor’s ability to directly influence, make connections between, or quickly spread resources to, other actors. An actor’s relative position in a network formed by these ties thus provides an important source of influence over others.
Introduction:~ Access, brokerage, and efficiency are all acknowledged as important sources of political influence – they generate the capacity to be a compelling force on or have effect on the behavior or beliefs of others. These sources are generally seen to be conceptually very different from each other, and measuring these crucial, but elusive, concepts has proven to be difficult. Yet all of them result from the distribution of ties (patterns of association) that link together actors in networks. These ties, whether material (like financial transactions) or immaterial (like friendship), determine an actor’sability to directly influence, make connections between, or quickly spread resources to, other actors. Keep reading…
Study about Influence Purchases in a Social Network
Abstract:~ Social networks, such as Facebook and Myspace have witnessed a rapid growth in their membership. Some of these businesses have tried an advertising-based model with very limited success. However, these businesses have not fully explored the power of their members to influence each other’s behavior. This potential viral or social effect can have significant impact on the success of these companies as well as provide a unique new marketing opportunity for traditional companies.
Overview:~Social networks have become a cultural phenomenon. Facebook, one of the largest social networking sites in the U.S. was founded in 2004. By February 2009, it boasts more than 175 million active users and continues to grow rapidly. Worldwide these users spend 3.0 billion minutes each day on Facebook. More than 850 million photos and 5 million videos are uploaded on the site each month. 2 There are hundreds of other similar sites including Myspace, Friendster, Xanga and Bebo. Keep reading onSocial Network
Abstract: Although the priority heuristic (PH) is conceived as a cognitive-process model, some of its critical process assumptions remain to be tested. The PH makes very strong ordinal and quantitative assumptions about the strictly sequential, non-compensatory use of three cues in choices between lotteries: (1) the difference between worst outcomes, (2) the difference in worst-case probabilities, and (3) the best outcome that can be obtained. These aspects were manipulated orthogonally in the present experiment. No support was found for the PH. Although the main effect of the primary worst-outcome manipulation was signiﬁcant, it came along with other effects that the PH excludes.
Introduction: For almost four decades, theoretical and empirical work on judgment and decision making has been inspired by the notion of cognitive heuristics. Accordingly, people rarely try to utilize all available information exhaustively, making perfectly accurate judgments. They are usually content with non-optimal but satisﬁcing solutions (Simon, 1983). The cognitive tools that afford such satis- ﬁcing solutions are commonly called heuristics. Their reputation has improved enormously. Having ﬁrst been devalued as mental short-cuts, sloppy rules of thumb, and sources of biases and shortcomings, in the more recent literature heuristics are often characterized as fast, frugal, and functional. Read more onDecision Algorithms
Abstract: This paper sets out to explore the achievements of civil society in the area of poverty reduction. The focus is mainly on three domains (1) Advocacy; (2) Policy Change and (3) Service Delivery. Three case studies illustrate how poverty can be addressed at various levels and through different approaches:
(1) Shack Dwellers International (SDI) operating internationally to advocate for the urban poor’s rights;
(2) Civil society organizations participating in the formulation of PRSPs to call for pro-poor policy reforms at the national level; and finally
(3) The example of BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) providing services to the poorest at the grassroots level.
Drawing on these case studies, the paper explains the keys to success and reasons for failure of civil society organizations in tackling poverty reduction effectively.
Introduction: The 1990s saw many changes as the Cold War ended and globalization began to drive social and economic change. Two of these have particular significance for the subject of this paper. First, the evolution of a global consensus that extreme poverty had to be tackled, culminating in the MDGs. Secondly, the belief that civil society should be a major player in this task – mobilizing communities, delivering services and shaping policies. The question is then: can civil society play a major role in delivering the world’s biggest promise, i.e. poverty reduction? Despite the importance of global poverty reduction, no movement has ever been developed around this issue. Why are there environmentalists and feminists but not ‘poverty-reductionists’? The growing international interest in poverty reduction results mainly from the efforts of aid and donor agencies and the energies of thousands of civil society organizations – rather than a selfsustaining social movement on poverty. Keep reading…
Study about How the Pecking-Order Theory Explain Capital Structure
The pecking order theory of capital structure is one of the most influential theories of corporate finance. The purpose of this study is to explore the most important factors on a firm’s capital structure by pecking-order theory. Hierarchical regression is used as the analysis model. This study examines the determinants of debt decisions for 305 Taiwan electronic companies that are quoted on the Taiwan Stock Exchange of 2009. The results indicate that the determinants of capital structure are profitability and growth rate. The profitability negatively affects on capital structure. It implies that firms prefer to use their earnings to finance business activities and thus use less debt capital.
Introduction: Effective financial management and what characters affect their capital structure are important for a firm to obtain better operational performance. A false decision about the capital structure may lead to financial distress and even to bankruptcy. There are numerous theories developed to analyze alternative capital structures. Among all these theories, the static trade off theory which derived by Modigliani and Miller (1963) was the earliest and most recognized which explains the formulation of capital structure. Their trade off theory assumed that there are optimal capital structures by trading off the benefits and cost of debt and equity. Keep reading…
Applying for a new job comes with its fair share of rejections, setbacks, frustrations and perhaps even lonely periods of unemployment. If you’ve been turned down for position after position, you could be getting desperate and may want to shake things up a bit so that your résumé will stand out from the piles of others stacked quietly in HR. Before you decide to get too creative, there are some rules to résumé etiquette that you should follow…click here to read ahead
School discipline addresses schoolwide, classroom, and individual student needs through broad prevention, targeted intervention, and development of self-discipline. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value.
This article surveys three approaches to improving school discipline practices and student behavior: ecological approaches to classroom management; schoolwide positive behavioral supports; and social and emotional learning. The article examines their epistemological and empirical roots and supporting research, suggesting ways to combine approaches. Keep Reading…
How to Overcome the Limitations of a Single-Cell Design ?
An important problem encountered by program evaluation projects in general is that they often must contend with their subjects’ maturation. In the particular case of university programs, educators appreciate the dramatic transformation that traditional age students undergo in the relatively short span they are in college.
This transformation is particularly noticeable in the transition from the second (`sopho- more’) to the third (`junior’) years, which in the USA coincides with the period during which an increasing number of university students go through the process of preparing for, and then participate in, study abroad. Keep reading…
How Cisco Built a Global, Cross-Functional Architecture Community
Background: To raise the overall knowledge of Cisco architecture among people in multiple business functions dispersed throughout the company globally, Cisco created the Architecture Center of Excellence (ACoE) community, an “enterprise social network.” With a growing membership of more than 2000 and approximately 300 unique visitors per week, ACoE runs on a platform called Cisco Quad, the result of several years of experimentation and piloting within the company. Cisco customers can draw on Cisco’s real-world experience implementing a virtual community and a social network for enterprise that is helping to meet the strategic business objectives of a global technology company.
Challenge: A key element of Cisco’s sales philosophy is to focus on architecture and end-to-end solutions, when appropriate, not on individual products. Raising the overall knowledge of architecture among relevant groups throughout the company will enable Cisco to engage customers and partners at a more strategic level with greater added value. To accomplish this, Cisco must create a bridge between siloed architecture experts and customer-facing staff in diverse groups across Cisco. keep reading..