The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that vitamin A deficiency affects 230 million children worldwide, and at least one million children per year are dying of diseases related to this deficiency. Ingo Potrykus and his collaborator Peter Beyer, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, led the effort to develop a variety of rice that contains beta-carotene, the plant pigment that is the precursor of Vitamin A. This rice, called “golden” rice because the inserted beta-carotene turns the grain a golden yellow color, could supply enough beta-carotene in a typical serving to supply 10% of the daily requirement for Vitamin A.
“It is ironic that some of the worst concentrations of xeropthalmia and blindness due to
Vitamin A deficiency occur in populations surrounded by abundant sources of the
vitamins and minerals in local vegetables and fruits, yet no country has yet mounted a
successful campaign to solve the Vitamin A problem in this way.”
Dr. Nevin Scrimshaw, 1991 Laureate of the World Food Prize
Study about Transportation and Economic Development
In particular, this report examines transportation planning through the lens of economic development and the Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (CEDS), a regional economic development plan. In 2011, the NADO Board of Directors adopted Peer Standards of Excellence for Economic Development Administration (EDA)-designated Economic Development Districts (EDDs).
These principles, developed by NADO members, are intended to make the CEDS a more effective tool, beyond a compliance plan needed to access EDA funds. The Standards of Excellence promote a strategic planning and implementation framework that is results-oriented; focused on aligning and leveraging resources; inclusive of public, private, and nonprofit sector leaders; and emphasizes the importance of asset-based regional economic development. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Socio-economic Improvement of Scavengers in Rajasthan
Introduction: An important feature of the Indian caste system is that a particular occupation is associated with each caste. While higher castes enjoy wide range of choices in occupations, the unclean jobs got associated with lower castes which include sweeping streets, cleaning drains and sewers, removal of human and animal waste, leather processing, raising of pigs and the like. As most towns and villages did not have flush latrines, sweepers were manually handling human excreta and carry it on their heads. Leather work includes handling of dead animals and removal of their skin and hence, it is also viewed unclean. Such jobs are considered not only polluting but are also of low paid which included payment in the form of left –over from kitchen as well.
The group of scavengers is placed lowest in caste-based hierarchy. Its members are bound not only by traditional obligations and customary rules to practice this ubiquitous occupation but mythological sanctions also oblige them to carry night soil physically for disposal. Everyone borne in the sub-caste of scavengers is destined to take up this subhuman profession (Phatak, 1991). Stephen Fuchs (1998) placed them at the bottom of Indian society i.e. lowest of all low castes. Despite, they are not without some social gradation: some are considered superior to others, their rank being determined by the respective origin, and the type of work they perform. The lowest place is occupied by those who manually clean latrines where scavengers come in direct contact with human excreta. The scavengers cleaning latrines are grossly underpaid, quite often abused and living a life of degradation. Keep reading..
The major objectives and hypotheses of the study are : impact of transformation on rural women workers and entrepreneurs in un-organized sector; migration, skill development, level of income and standard of living, women empowerment, etc. The following methodology is followed: Two backward and two developed districts from out of 35 districts in the state have been selected to make a comparative analysis. From each of the 4 districts, 2 blocks each (i.e. 8 blocks) were selected. Again from each block 10 villages (or total 80 villages) were selected. Finally, from each village 10 women workers/entrepreneurs, ere selected or 80 X 10 = 800 total sample. Keep reading…
Studies about Small Town Community Economic Development
Executive Summary: Small Towns, Big Ideas is the result of an intensive, yearlong effort to identify and document the stories of small towns that are surviving – and, in some cases, thriving – as hubs of civic and economic activity. This publication includes stories about planning and implementing economic development strategies in 45 small towns with populations of fewer than 10,000 residents. Half of the towns featured are from North Carolina, and half are from other states. This collection of case studies is a response to the demand from civic leaders in North Carolina for real stories, from real places that are confronting real challenges similar to those facing small communities everywhere. Stories are told in a narrative format and are intended to provide concrete ideas, inspiration and hope to civic leaders working in small communities and to policy makers dealing with rural development issues. The lessons section draws a series of conclusions, from across all the case studies, about economic development in small communities.
Background: The Small Towns, Big Ideas project began in mid-2006, when the UNC-Chapel Hill School of Government partnered with the North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center to identify 50 small towns that were implementing successful or innovative approaches to community economic development. Project faculty and staff established a set of screening criteria and assembled an advisory committee to guide the selection of communities. The author visited and conducted on-site interviews with leaders in 10 communities. These are documented at length in the publication and represent comprehensive approaches to community economic development, including an analysis of how and why a particular set of strategies seemed to have worked within the local context. Telephone interviews were conducted with representatives from the remainder of the communities, which are documented in a shorter format and represent incremental strategies for advancing a community’s vision. Keep reading…
A Case Study about Victorian Government ICT Strategy
Government relies on information to do its job. It is the basis for sound decision-making and service delivery. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) enables government to manage its digital information, engage and transact with the Victorian public and businesses, and streamline its internal processes. This strategy responds to community expectations and industry advice. It takes advantage of technology changes and a strong local ICT industry, and addresses the investment failures of the past. It aims to rebuild the strong ICT leadership position previously enjoyed by Victoria during the 1990s, so that we can again benefit from successful, innovative ICT initiatives. We want to use information and technology to create better services for Victorians.
In a modern public service, ICT underpins and shapes service delivery. Reinvigorating the way we use information and technology should result in major benefits. ICT provides the channels for government to connect with businesses and the community, it automates processes and it makes transactions more convenient. In a time when global and national economic factors have resulted in significant pressure on the Victorian budget, improving the management and use of ICT provides an opportunity to raise productivity across the public sector.However, ICT management in the Victorian Government is not without its challenges. Government is a complex, multi-organisation enterprise. Accountability and services are traditionally focussed and optimised within each organisation. Cross-agency initiatives can be difficult to implement. The rate of change in ICT makes the Chief Information Officer (CIO) role in private and public enterprises challenging. Keep reading..
A Study on Transportation and Economic Development: Aligning Strategies to Maximize Impact
The National Association of Development Organizations (NADO) is a national membership organization for the national network of over 520 regional development organizations (RDOs) focused on strengthening local governments, communities, and economies through regional strategies, partnerships, and solutions.Founded in 1988, the NADO Research Foundation is the nonprofit research affiliate of NADO. The NADO Research Foundation identifies, studies, and promotes regional solutions and approaches to improving local prosperity and services through the nationwide network of RDOs.
The Research Foundation shares best practices and offers professional development training, analyzes the impact of federal policies and programs on RDOs and their local communities, and examines the latest developments and trends in small metropolitan and rural America. Most importantly, the Research Foundation is helping bridge the communications gap among practitioners, researchers, and policy makers. Keep reading…
Executive Summary: Impact Assessment Study of Socio-Economic Development Programmes in Himachal Pradesh, sponsored by the Planning Commission, Government of India has been conducted by Asia pacific Socio-Economic Research Institute, New Delhi from December 1999 to February 2000. 2. For socio-economic development of the country – a cherished goal before the planners since the launch of the First Five Year Plan – development strategy has undergone important adaptations in successive Plans reflecting both changing conditions and fresh experiences.
‘Trickle Down Theory’ of the first two decades of planned development was replaced by direct interventionist policy for target oriented groups. Expansion of employment opportunities was found necessary for poverty alleviation and effective utilization of human resources for economic and social development. Keep reading..
A Case Study for Publications of Interest to Forensic Economists
Abstract: This feature of the Litigation Economics Review provides an annotated listing of recent publications which may be of interest to forensic economists in their consulting work and research. The articles have been selected by scouring the non-forensic economics literature, a literature that because of time constraints or narrow sub-disciplinary interests is not likely to be visited as frequently as many of us would wish.
This study uses longitudinal data to examine whether becoming a U.S. citizen leads to higher wages, either immediately or by accelerating wage growth. For young male immigrants, becoming a U.S. citizen has allowed them to gain access to public-sector, whitecollar, and union jobs, and hence then wage growth accelerates – consistent with removal of employment barriers. The faster wage growth of immigrants who become naturalized might also have an alternative explanation – greater human capital investment prior to naturalization, stemming from a long-term commitment to the U.S. labor market. However, the evidence suggests that wage growth does not accelerate and job access does not improve until citizenship is attained. A further finding is that the gains from becoming a citizen are greater for immigrants from less developed countries and persist after controlling for unobserved productivity. Keep reading…
Case Study about New Economic Analysis of Infrastructure Investment
Executive Summary: President Obama’s FY 2013 Budget proposes a bold plan to renew and expand America’s infrastructure. The plan includes a $50 billion up-front investment connected to a $476 billion six-year reauthorization of the surface transportation program and the creation of a National Infrastructure Bank. In support of this commitment, the Department of the Treasury, with the Council of Economic Advisers, has updated our analysis of the economic effects of infrastructure investment. The new data and analyses confirm and strengthen our finding that now is an ideal ime to increase our investment in infrastructure.
Return on Investment: Many studies have found evidence of large private sector productivity gains from public infrastructure investments, in many cases with higher returns than private capital investment. Research has shown that well-designed infrastructure investments can raise economic growth, productivity, and land values, while also providing significant positive spillovers to areas such as economic development, energy efficiency, public health, and manufacturing. Keep reading…