Studies about Transit Oriented Development Around Bus Rapid Transit Systems in North America and Australia
Executive Summary: Many cities are promoting “transit-oriented development” (TOD) as a sustainable growth management strategy. At the same time, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is becoming increasingly popular as a flexible, cost-effective rapid transit mode. The purpose of this report is to provide examples of BRT-based TOD as a resource for policymakers, public agencies, and the development community. The report uses a case-based research methodology, examining four developed country cities characterized by high private car usage and significant TOD around their BRT corridor.
We found that the type and level of investment occurring near BRT stations appears comparable to the experience with TOD near rail transit. We also found that planning agencies generally made no distinction between BRT and rail in terms of its ability to attract TOD. Indeed, the public agencies and private developers we interviewed generally were enthusiastic about the potential of BRT to attract TOD, with many developers reporting that BRT has a “very positive” impact on their property values. Finally, there did not appear to be a direct correlation between the level of public investment in the BRT system and the level of private TOD investment. For example, one of the most significant TOD’s we observed is located on the ork Region’s VIVA BRT, which was the least infrastructure-intensive BRT analyzed. Keep reading..
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that vitamin A deficiency affects 230 million children worldwide, and at least one million children per year are dying of diseases related to this deficiency. Ingo Potrykus and his collaborator Peter Beyer, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, led the effort to develop a variety of rice that contains beta-carotene, the plant pigment that is the precursor of Vitamin A. This rice, called “golden” rice because the inserted beta-carotene turns the grain a golden yellow color, could supply enough beta-carotene in a typical serving to supply 10% of the daily requirement for Vitamin A.
“It is ironic that some of the worst concentrations of xeropthalmia and blindness due to
Vitamin A deficiency occur in populations surrounded by abundant sources of the
vitamins and minerals in local vegetables and fruits, yet no country has yet mounted a
successful campaign to solve the Vitamin A problem in this way.”
Dr. Nevin Scrimshaw, 1991 Laureate of the World Food Prize
Introduction: In 2001, the New Zealand government introduced reforms to the structure of New Zealand’s health and disability sector. Under the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000, the government introduced a number of overarching strategies to guide the health and disability sector and it established 21 District Health Boards as local organisations responsible for population health and for the purchasing and provision of health and disability support services at a local level.
The project was funded jointly by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and by the Ministry of Health, the Treasury and the State Services Commission through a grant from a Ministry of Research, Science, and Technology Departmental Contestable Research Pool. We are grateful to them for their funding of this research and for the excellent support and advice they provided during the project. Keep reading…
A Study about the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa
Executive Summary: The Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (Partnership) was a ten-year funder collaborative that sought to strengthen higher education in Africa. Established in 2000, the initiative came at a critical time in African history. A number of nations were implementing democratic and economic reforms. Universities and other institutions of higher education were experiencing resurgence after years of neglect in favor of primary and secondary education. A new energy and resourcefulness was apparent.
Leaders of the Partnership foundations saw an opportunity to make a difference by encouraging systemic and sustainable change to higher education institutions in countries where they were already actively working. The Partnership focused its support on universities in nine countries: Egypt, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.The original members of the Partnership were Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Rockefeller, Ford and John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundations. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the Kresge Foundation later joined the Partnership. Keep reading…
A Study report about High Expectations and Reality: An Evaluation of Budget Support
Summary and conclusions:~ In 2005, the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) and a number of cooperating partners signed a memorandum for the provision of Poverty Reduction Budget Support (PRBS). By then, the movement towards general budget support was a logical step in the process of harmonizing and aligning development cooperation. This process had started in the 1990s with the development of sector-wide approaches (SWAps). The SWAps contributed to further harmonization, resulting in the Joint Assistance Strategy for Zambia (JASZ) in 2007. The memorandum of understanding (MoU) was also an expression of the preference that GRZ had for budget support as the main aid modality. Over the years, budget support for Zambia increased from US$100 million in 2005 to US$216 million in 2009.
This report presents the results of an evaluation of budget support in Zambia. The evaluation focused on cooperating partners’ strategies for providing budget support. It also dealt with the process and structure of donor harmonization and alignment with government policies and systems. Finally, it looked at the effects that this aid modality had on institutional performance, PFM and budget allocations, and analysed the impact of budget support in a number of key sectors. Keep Reading….
Study about Comparison of Tourist Expectations and Satisfaction
Abstract: For several years the number of tourists visiting Antalya Region has been increasing. It could be argued that Antalya is comparable with a capital city in terms of tourist numbers. Antalya Region hosted over 9 million tourists in 2008. To sustain demand and increase competition of operators in Antalya, it is necessary to create a powerful brand image. This will require a combination effort from all tourism stakeholders. Consequently, it is important to define the current tourist profile visiting Antalya Region, evaluate tourists’ expectations and satisfaction, and identify future tourism related research. These outcomes are all important in developing regional tourism. The aim of this study is comparison of expectation-levels and satisfaction-levels of a selected sample of tourists. The findings culminate from research conducted in Antalya Region from a sample of 10.393 tourists during 2008.
Introduction: Antalya Region is located in the southern part of Turkey; and it attracts many overseas tourists because of its climate and natural beauty. Tourism destinations can be defined as temporary locations for gaining a travel experience, and which is related to the destination’s attractiveness (Leiper, 1979:392). According to another perspective, and related to an individual’s travel requirements, tourism destinations can be evaluated as reflections of emotions, beliefs and thoughts in enabling perceived satisfaction (Hu, Ritchie, 1993:27). Uysal (1998) evaluates destination attractiveness and sources, as supply factors representing pushing forces, which constitute tourist demand. Naturally, tourists will have expectations from tourism destinations, in terms of attractiveness and sources. These expectations can be increased or decreased, resulting from publicity and marketing efforts of the tourism destination. Keep reading…
Study about Impression Management: Playing the Promotion Game
Abstract: Little attention has been paid to the role which impression management (IM) of genuine and substantial talents and commitment plays in the careers of female and male managers seeking promotion. IM studies have largely investigated the supervisor/subordinate relationship, often with samples of business students in laboratory settings. In the Cranfield Centre for Developing Women Business Leaders, we have focused on the use of IM by practising managers. In this paper, we examine previous literature for indications that gender may be important in explaining differences in IM behaviours.
Introduction:~ There have been few research reports into the use of impression management (IM) strategies by managerial and professional populations, other than Singh and Vinnicombe’s (2001) study of IM strategies to signal high commitment. Recently, Ferris et al. (2000) indicated the need for more research into political skills at work, because of the increasing importance of this area in human resource management. Organizations are using political skills as selection criteria without explicitly recognizing and labeling them as such. Keep reading…
Study on Strengthening of Intellectual Property Rights in Mexico: Maize Breeding
Introduction: Intellectual property rights (IPR) are generally considered an efficient device to stimulate innovation and foster economic development. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) stipulates that “the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology. However, a growing number of observers and experts question this position and maintain that the strengthening of IPR will benefit industrialized countries while hurting developing countries, resulting in reduced welfare for the world as a whole (Panagariya, 1999). There is considerable uncertainty as to the effects of strong IPR on development and economic growth in developing countries (Tansey, 2004).
Intellectual Property Rights and their Impacts: Historically, patents and IPR in general were developed to support industrial development. However, with the advances in biological sciences and especially biotechnology in the last decades, IPR use has been extended to agricultural inventions. The TRIPS agreement sets minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property in the member states: Such harmonization should also facilitate trade and international transactions (Maskus and Penubarti, 1995). In most industrialised countries, the intellectual property protection systems needed little adaptation, while in developing countries, the strengthening of IPR in the area of agricultural inventions basically consisted. Keep reading…
A Studies about Intellectual Property Rights and The Inuit Amauti
Executive Summary:~ The purpose of this paper is to describe an on-going project by Pauktuutit Inuit Women’s Association of Canada. In partnership with the Federal Departments of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Status of Women Canada, Canadian Heritage, and Environment Canada the Association has pursued activities dedicated to protecting Inuit cultural heritage and cultural property. Fundamental to the project has been the need to raise awareness at the community level about current intellectual property rights (IPR) laws and standards. This case study will describe the processes Pauktuutit has undertaken to build the capacity of Inuit women to evaluate their IPR needs and expectations.
Introduction: The Arctic adaptation of Inuit has inspired some remarkable innovations and technologies. The modern world, however, has appropriated many elements of Inuit material culture without due recognition or compensation for the original creators. The parka, kayak, and anorak are obvious examples. The traditional boot, the kamik, is now a trademark brand of outdoor footwear made by Genfoot. The logo for the product line is an inukshuk. This exploitation of traditional knowledge, and the intellectual property that it encompasses, is not uncommon among Indigenous Peoples around the world. A 1997 study found 81 percent of Canadian Indigenous artisans had experienced some form of misappropriation or misuse of traditional aboriginal designs. Read more forIntellectual Property Rights
Abstract:~ India is among the first countries in the world to have passed legislation granting Farmers’ Rights in the form of the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001. India’s experience is important due to its international contribution to negotiations on Farmers’ Rights, its position as a centre of biodiversity, and the complexities of agriculture in India within which the country is attempting to implement these rights. This case study provides an overview of the state of Farmers’ Rights, and opinions of over forty stakeholders in India including farmers, NGOs, industry and government representatives.
Executive Summary:~ The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture recognizes Farmers’ Rights and obliges the countries being Parties to the Treaty to protect and promote these rights. Countries, however, have not yet been able to evolve any consensus on how to define or implement Farmers’ Rights. International coordination in this regard is also lacking. These are serious drawbacks that could prevent Farmers’ Rights from becoming a realistic and workable mechanism. This report attempts to evolve options for the practical implementation of Farmers’ Rights through a case study of India. Read more onRights of Farmers in India