A Case Study about on Toxic International Partnership
Background: The late 1980s witnessed a stunning rise of the so-called ìgreenî movement in Western Europe. Inspired by dead seals, wilting forests, closed beaches, Chernobyl, chemical accidents, ozone depletion, global warming, and so on, environmental groups such as Friends of the Earth saw their memberships double. Green consumerism emerged rapidly in nations such as West Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, with retailers capitalizing on a rising demand for ìenvironment friendlyî products. Green political parties and politicians gained strength at local, national and European-wide (i.e., European Parliament) levels. Once thought of as little more than radical business-bashing cranks, the greens moved from the political fringe to the center in countries as diverse as France, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands, and West Germany.
Completing Internal Market: Europeís economic and technological malaise during the early 1980s had manifested itself in sluggish relative growth rates, persistently high unemployment, and growing trade deficits and losses of global market shares in high technology sectors. European leaders in 1985 concluded that the best hope of revitalizing their economies lay in attempting to fulfill the original vision of the European Economic Community, by means of ìCompleting the Internal Market.î This initiative, formally endorsed in ìThe Single European Actî of 1987 and summarized in the phrase ìEurope 1992,î required the Communityís twelve member countries to remove all remaining obstacles to the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital by the end of 1992.
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